Weston A. Price
This energy-rich compound is common to all cells. No invitation necessary ," he tells Merle in Blood Money other examples: Do not use vegetable fats. That should be your average daily requirement. Their average stay was five days. In , American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials.
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Humans use many different methods for gathering food which include farming, hunting, gardening, foraging and fishing. Humans eat meat from a number of different animals, common examples include meat from chickens, cows, sheep and pigs.
Other food products that come from animals include milk, eggs and honey. Although humans are omnivores eating both plants and animals , many people choose not to eat meat and fish, they are known as vegetarians.
Food for human consumption is typically made from plants and animals but we also eat other products such as fermented foods and fungus mushrooms, truffles etc. Cooking is an important part of food preparation that involves applying heat. In most cases this transforms the chemical make up of food, altering its texture, flavor, nutritional properties and appearance. Types of equipment used in the cooking process include ovens, microwaves, toasters, grills, pots and frying pans.
Various cooking methods include boiling, simmering, steaming, sautéing, pan frying and deep-frying. Around 70 million people suffer from food poisoning every year with around 7 million of these cases being fatal. Careful food storage, temperature control and preparation is necessary to avoid potentially dangerous bacteria, toxins and viruses. Vitamin D can be synthesized only by a photochemical process.
Phytoplankton in the ocean such as coccolithophore and Emiliania huxleyi have been photosynthesizing vitamin D for more than million years. Primitive vertebrates in the ocean could absorb calcium from the ocean into their skeletons and eat plankton rich in vitamin D. Land vertebrates required another source of vitamin D other than plants for their calcified skeletons. They had to either ingest it or be exposed to sunlight to photosynthesize it in their skin.
In birds and fur-bearing mammals, fur or feathers block UV rays from reaching the skin. Instead, vitamin D is created from oily secretions of the skin deposited onto the feathers or fur, and is obtained orally during grooming.
Vitamin D 3 cholecalciferol is produced industrially by exposing 7-dehydrocholesterol to UVB light, followed by purification. Vitamin D 2 ergocalciferol is produced in a similar way using ergosterol from yeast or mushrooms as a starting material. Vitamin D is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcifediol. Circulating calcifediol may then be converted into calcitriol , the biologically active form of vitamin D, in the kidneys.
Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver at position 25 upper right of the molecule to form hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol or 25 OH D. The conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxyvitamin D 3 1-alpha-hydroxylase , which is the product of the CYP27B1 human gene. The activity of CYP27B1 is increased by parathyroid hormone , and also by low calcium or phosphate.
Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol is released into the circulation. By binding to vitamin D-binding protein, calcitriol is transported throughout the body, including to the classical target organs of intestine, kidney and bone. In addition to the kidneys, calcitriol is also synthesized by certain other cells including monocyte - macrophages in the immune system. When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine , modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system.
The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 hydroxylase , forming secalciferol and calcitetrol respecively.
American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in  discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A". British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease.
In , Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named. In ,  it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced now known as D 3. Alfred Fabian Hess stated: A meeting took place with J. Bernal , and Dorothy Crowfoot to discuss possible structures, which contributed to bringing a team together.
X-ray crystallography demonstrated the sterol molecules were flat, not as proposed by the German team led by Windaus. In , Otto Rosenheim and Harold King published a paper putting forward structures for sterols and bile acids which found immediate acceptance. In the s, Windaus clarified further the chemical structure of vitamin D. In , American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials.
A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk.
By the expiration of his patent in , rickets had been all but eliminated in the US. In , after studying nuclear fragments of intestinal cells, a specific binding protein for Vitamin D called the Vitamin D Receptor was identified by Mark Haussler and Tony Norman. In the liver, vitamin D was found to be converted to calcifediol. Calcifediol is then converted by the kidneys to calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D.
The vitamin D metabolites, calcifediol and calcitriol, were identified by competing teams led by Michael F. There is considerable research activity looking at effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in animal models, cell systems, gene expression studies, epidemiology and clinical therapeutics.
These different types of studies can produce conflicting evidence as to the benefits of interventions with vitamin D.
They suggest, for some people, reducing the risk of preventable disease requires a higher level of vitamin D than that recommended by the IOM. Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the available evidence for public health and patient care will be debated".
Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. Apart from VDR activation, various alternative mechanisms of action are under study, such as inhibition of signal transduction by hedgehog , a hormone involved in morphogenesis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vitamin D disambiguation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The Journal of Nutrition. Retrieved 6 June American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
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Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved August 24, The Nutrition Desk Reference. Melanie 1 February How Milk Became America's Drink. A systematic review and meta-analysis". Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases Review. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Preventive Services Task Force". A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". American Journal of Epidemiology Review.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Journal of Clinical Virology. Topics in Antiviral Medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. The evidence for vitamin D as a treatment for MS is inconclusive. The available evidence substantiates neither clinically significant benefit nor harm from vitamin D in the treatment of patients with MS.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal Systematic Review. Several preliminary studies have reported results which have shown some promise, but none has yet provided significant evidence of a clinically meaningful improvement.
Role, Current Uses and Future Perspectives". A nutrition professional who has completed a bachelor's degree in nutritional sciences or a related field, completed post-graduate studies in clinical nutrition commensorate to the program offered by the Clinical Nutrition Certification Board CNCB , and received a passing score on the board CCN Examination.
Also known as CNS, this is the most frequent, non-RD credential recognized in state nutrition regulations. A private credentialing body awarding the Certified Nutrition Specialist CNS designation for nutrition practitioners with advanced degrees who meet specific, clinically-oriented, academic, exam, and supervised practice requirements.
An individual, program, organization or school that is recognized as having met a set of standards set by a public or private body. A process, instituted by either a governmental or private sector organization, which verifies that one has met a defined set of criteria.
The certifying agency of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics AND whose responsibilties encompass all matters pertaining to certification , including but not limited to standard setting, establishment of fees, finances and administration.
A license, certificate, or registration. A health professional trained to provide ifestyle nutrition and help individuals set and reach their health goals using diet and exercise tools and behavioral psychology principles. Holding a government credential authorizing one to practice an occupation in a state with a licensure regulation for that occupation. A clause within a law that specifies individuals or groups to whom the law does not apply or circumstances under which the law does not apply.
Diplomate candidates must be chiropractic physicians and have successfully completed the required post graduate nutrition coursework. A nutriton professional who has received a clinical doctorate in Nutritional Sciences or is a health professional with a doctoral level training e. Diabetes Self Management Training. Holding a government credential listing one as practicing nutrition in a state with a Registration regulation; or Recognized by a private body awarding Registration to a person who has met defined criteria set by the registration body usually in order to demonstrate a level of competence, e.
Licensure with Exclusive Scope of Practice. Licensure Without Exclusive Scope of Practice. Holding a government credential authorizing one to practice an occupation in state with a Certification regulation for that occupation; or Recognized by a private body awarding Certification to a person who has met defined criteria set by the accrediting body, usually in order to demonstrate a level of competence.