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CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases. Vitamins That Make the Body Alkaline. Liquid diets Very low calorie. Vampires often have mixed feelings about humans as well. Angel has on clothes and shoes. Called the most fundamental chemical discovery of the 18th century, [30] Lavoisier discovered the principle of conservation of mass. The dialogue on the show confuses this issue.

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Optimum Nutrition is legendary for both quality and innovation. When technology makes advancements possible, ON will be the company bringing it to you. I took the banana flavor three times last year. After my second tub I noticed I had definitely filled out more and some of my lifts went up as well. Now that I've been off of it for a year I can tell you that it definitely works.

I was up to Now I'm down in the range. It does contain a lot of carbs and sodium so if your diet isn't good mine isn't the best you will gain fat as well as muscle.

You have to work out with it and try and limit your soda and fast food. The banana flavor was good and I used a standard shaker cup. I had no problems with the mix ability.

However, the serving size is two heaping scoops which, in my opinion, is overkill. I saved more of the product by cutting the serving down to one scoop or one and a half.

Still put on 20 lbs in five months. Would recommend for the hard gainer. Cookies and cream flavour: It smells like a cleaning product, the tastes not so bad, though.

Better mixed with water than milk. It mixes ok, not great. It seems to have a lot of sugar, because you feel a rush after taking it very noticeable.

It works in terms of gains, but I've been using it for 3 weeks and I'm getting pimples all over my face and back. So I'm guessing my body doesn't like some of the ingredients. I'm sure it's this gainer, because that's the only food I've changed in the last 3 months. I keep a very strict diet. Superior product at a great price! The cookies and cream isn't quite as tasty as ather products like syntha6 but easy to put down a few times a day. Gains are very iminent after just a bag.

I have gained well over 15 lbs. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis , [96] and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices.

Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today.

ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems. ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes.

When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced. High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber.

Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information.

Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions.

Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G.

Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy. Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.

Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs.

Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol.

The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes.

Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. It has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake, and reducing glycemic load see below all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals and thereby lower their blood sugar level , in those with type 2 diabetes.

In addition, reduced leptin signaling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may possess the potential to overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain homeostasis , the recent explosive introduction of high glycemic index and processed foods into the human diet may possess the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic.

Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. The relatively recent increased consumption of sugar has been linked to the rise of some afflictions such as diabetes, obesity, and more recently heart disease. Increased consumption of sugar has been tied to these three, among others. In the same time span that obesity doubled, diabetes numbers quadrupled in America.

Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Elevated amounts of Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, is the primary factor in heart disease.

In order to avoid all the dangers of sugar, moderate consumption is paramount. Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature. Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled.

These latter technologies include pasteurisation , autoclavation , drying , salting , and separation of various components, all of which appearing to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation heating techniques have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection.

But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Modern separation techniques such as milling , centrifugation , and pressing have enabled concentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices, and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Inevitably, such large-scale concentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others.

Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet-to-be-discovered substances. In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice.

Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine , causing beri-beri. Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 19th century in the United States.

It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease. Pasteurisation was effective against bacteria, but it destroyed the vitamin C. As mentioned, lifestyle- and obesity-related diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent all around the world.

There is little doubt that the increasingly widespread application of some modern food processing technologies has contributed to this development. The food processing industry is a major part of modern economy, and as such it is influential in political decisions e. In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend.

In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produce and sell than are more processed foods. Thus, the consumer is left with the choice between more expensive, but nutritionally superior, whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionally inferior, processed foods.

Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient in both purchasing, storage, and preparation , and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods has been increasing throughout the world along with many nutrition-related health complications.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Nutrition in general. For Nutrition in humans, see Human nutrition. For Nutrition in animals, see Animal nutrition. For nutrition in plants, see Plant nutrition.

For the medical journal, see Nutrition journal. Mineral nutrient and Composition of the human body. List of antioxidants in food. Animal nutrition and Human nutrition. Nutrition portal Food portal.

Food Balance Wheel Biology: Bioenergetics Digestion Enzyme Dangers of poor nutrition Deficiency Avitaminosis is a deficiency of vitamins. Boron deficiency medicine Chromium deficiency Iron deficiency medicine Iodine deficiency Magnesium deficiency medicine Diabetes Eating disorders Illnesses related to poor nutrition Malnutrition Obesity Childhood obesity Starvation Food: Dieting Eating Healthy eating pyramid Nutritional rating systems Lists: Diets list List of food additives List of illnesses related to poor nutrition List of life extension related topics List of publications in nutrition List of unrefined sweeteners List of antioxidants List of phytochemicals Nutrients: Dietitian Nutritionist Food Studies Tools: Human Nutrition and Food".

Retrieved 13 December Understanding Nutrition 13 ed. Deficiency, How Much, Benefits, and More. The New York Times. Archived from the original on The Profession of Dietetics. A History of Nutrition.

The Riverside Press Houghton Mifflin. Perspectives in Clinical Research. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 5 ed. The Journal of Nutrition. Observations on the effect of adding tryptophane to a dietary in which zein is the sole nitrogenous constituent" PDF.

The Journal of Physiology. Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry: Personal Recollections, Part 1. Retrieved March 15, Part 3 — ". Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. Part 4 — ". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved June 13, Retrieved December 22, Joins Hunt for Young German Chemist". San Bernardino Daily Sun. United States Department Of Agriculture.

Archived from the original PDF on August 24, University of California Press. The End of Dieting. Harper One Harper Collins. Diabetik Bei Diabetus Mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. Harvard School of Public Health. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. Recommended Dietary Allowances, revised Food Balance Sheets- A Handbook. Journal of Clinical Pathology.

Introduction to Health Care 3 ed. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 3rd ed. An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology 5th ed. Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 1 May Handbook of Plant Nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Retrieved May 9, Health and Literacy Intervention Outcomes: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. In Defense of Food: World Bank Research Observer. J Am Coll Health. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Public Economics. Chronicle of Higher Education. The vertical integration of food for thought". Cancer no longer rare in poorer countries". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Manufacturing Packaging Marketing Foodservice Fortification. Potato farms in the United States were the most productive in , with a nationwide average of New Zealand farmers have demonstrated some of the best commercial yields in the world, ranging between 60 and 80 tonnes per hectare, some reporting yields of 88 tonnes potatoes per hectare.

There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato. Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38—44 tonnes per hectare. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in , and had yields of Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment.

Improvements in one or more of these yield determinants, and a closure of the yield gap, can be a major boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the developing world. Potatoes are prepared in many ways: The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules.

Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips crisps.

Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato.

Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25 [95] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3, varieties of this tuber are grown there. Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena.

French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia , [] and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru , Bolivia, Argentina , and Chile. In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago , potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca. In Ecuador , the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas , a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese.

In the UK , potatoes form part of the traditional staple fish and chips. Roast potatoes are commonly served with a Sunday roast , and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes such as shepherd's pie , bubble and squeak , and bangers and mash. New potatoes may be cooked with mint and often served with butter. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish.

Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder.

A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire , especially Liverpool , is made with cooked and mashed potatoes. These are then mixed with regionally varying ingredients. In Germany, Northern and Eastern Europe especially in Scandinavian countries , Finland, Poland, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine , newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy. Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill , these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring.

Puddings made from grated potatoes kugel , kugelis , and potato babka are popular items of Ashkenazi , Lithuanian , and Belarusian cuisine. Bauernfrühstück literally farmer's breakfast is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs , ham and vegetables. Cepelinai is Lithuanian national dish. They are a type of dumpling made from riced potatoes see Potato ricer and usually stuffed with minced meat , although sometimes dry cottage cheese curd or mushrooms are used instead.

Stamppot , a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier , named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier , a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. The pâté aux pommes de terre is a regional potato dish from the central Allier and Limousin regions. In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi.

Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. In western Norway, komle is popular. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. Tortilla de patatas potato omelette and patatas bravas a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce are near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas. In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments.

French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias. One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese or sour cream and chives on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel have great popularity.

Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste. A regional dish of Central New York , salt potatoes are bite-size new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter.

At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. Among American Jews , the practice of eating latkes fried potato pancakes is common during the festival of Hanukkah. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée.

The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato , salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled. The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar.

Poutine , by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada. Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. In South Asia , the potato is a very popular traditional staple. In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi , batata vada , and samosa , which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried.

Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India.

It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse paste rolled over spicy smashed potato and eaten with sambhar and chutney. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal.

Other favourite dishes are alu tikki and pakoda items. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Aloo posto a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal. Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations. The Aloo gosht , Potato and meat curry , is one of the popular dishes in South Asia , especially in Pakistan.

In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan. In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes. It is also occasionally seen in Korean and Thai cuisines.

During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve. Van Gogh 's painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were. He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work.

It presents a theme representative of the peasants' struggle for survival. Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes.

Potatoes are represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally. Invented in and marketed and sold commercially by Hasbro in , Mr.

Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts such as ears and eyes to make a face. It was the first toy ever advertised on television. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see spud disambiguation , tater disambiguation , and potato disambiguation.

List of potato cultivars. History of the potato. List of potato diseases. List of potato dishes. Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 31 December American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America.

Retrieved 10 April Lost Crops of the Incas: Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 10 September Chemistry, Analysis, Safety, and Plant Physiology". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 15 November Diccionario Usual" in Spanish. Retrieved 16 July Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.

Retrieved 13 May A Guide to Food Production. International Journal of Developmental Biology Retrieved 8 January American Journal of Potato Research cited through Bnet. Retrieved 19 February Microsatellite Data, Celeste M. Raker and David M. Archived from the original PDF on 26 March Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 1 May American Journal of Potato Research.

ScienceDaily with information from a report originally appearing in the American Journal of Botany. Retrieved 27 August

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