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Bacteria in your mouth can cause bad breath. Quran's Message for Humanity. Glycogen resynthesis after exercise: Find out how the aging process changes nutritional needs. Clinical Geriatric Nutrition is geared towards taking care of the sick elderly, whether at home, in a hospital, or in a long-term care or other institution. Antioxidants help shield your body from damaging molecules called free radicals. Our 60kg athlete requires grams of Carbohydrates, 84 grams of Fat and grams of Protein.

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Dietetics/Nutrition Continuing Education

Glycogen is the main source of fuel used by the muscles to enable you to undertake both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. If you train with low glycogen stores, you will feel constantly tired, training performance will be lower, and you will be more prone to injury and illness. Carefully planned nutrition must provide an energy balance and a nutrient balance.

Like fuel for a car, the energy we need has to be blended. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans [1] recommends the following blend:. For the purposes of the following examples and calculations I will use the following values: The approximate energy yield per gram is as follows [3]: Our 60kg athlete requires grams of Carbohydrates, 84 grams of Fat and grams of Protein.

To obtain an estimate of your daily calorie requirements and the amount of Carbohydrates, Protein and Fat please enter your weight, hours of training and then select the Calculate button. The nature of the fat depends on the type of fatty acids that make up the triglycerides. All fats contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids but are usually described as 'saturated' or 'unsaturated' according to the proportion of fatty acids present.

Saturated fats are generally solid at room temperature and tend to be animal fats. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and are usually vegetable fats - there are exceptions e. There are two types of carbohydrates - starchy complex carbohydrates and simple sugars. The simple sugars are found in confectionery, muesli bars, cakes and biscuits, cereals, puddings, soft drinks and juices and jam and honey but they also contain fat.

Starchy carbohydrates are found in potatoes, rice, bread, wholegrain cereals, semi skimmed milk, yogurt, fruit, vegetables, beans and pulses. Both types effectively replace muscle glycogen. The starchy carbohydrates are the ones that have all the vitamins and minerals in them as well as protein.

They are also low in fat as long as you do not slap on loads of butter and fatty sauces. The starchy foods are much bulkieo so there can be a problem in actually eating that amount of food so supplementing with simple sugar alternatives is necessary. Your digestive system converts the carbohydrates in food into glucose, a form of sugar carried in the blood and transported to cells for energy.

The glucose, in turn, is broken down into carbon dioxide and water. Any glucose not used by the cells is converted into glycogen - another form of carbohydrate that is stored in the muscles and liver. However, the body's glycogen capacity is limited to about grams; once this maximum has been reached, any excess glucose is quickly converted into fat.

And although this metabolic window of opportunity diminishes as time passes, certain types of exercise, such as resistance training to the point of muscular fatigue, keep the window open for up to 48 hours. Therefore, athletes must be cognizant of what they consume each day and when.

Physical training takes place in succinct bouts, but the nutrition segment of a training program extends to all waking hours and must include the replenishment of several nutrients to promote postexercise recovery. Glycogen Replenishment Glycogen, which is stored in the muscles, is the fuel source athletes must restore following strenuous training.

Muscle glycogen is the predominant fuel source used during long bouts of aerobic exercise. In fact, aerobic performance is directly related to initial glycogen stores. Once glycogen is depleted, the athlete will feel fatigued and performance will suffer. The best way athletes can quickly replenish muscle glycogen is to consume 1.

Urine color should be clear, and there should be a plentiful amount. Coaches can keep track of fluid losses by weighing athletes before and after training. For every pound of fluid lost, athletes should consume 20 to 24 oz of fluid. Moreover, postworkout fluids or meals should contain sodium, particularly for athletes who lose large amounts of sodium through sweat. Repair and Build In addition to fluid and electrolyte losses, training increases circulating catabolic hormones to facilitate the breakdown of glycogen and fat for fuel.

These hormone levels remain high after exercise and continue to break down muscle tissue. Without nutrient intake, this catabolic cascade continues for hours postexercise, contributing to muscle soreness and possibly compromising training adaptations and subsequent performance. To repair and build muscle, athletes must refuel with high-protein foods immediately following exercise, especially after resistance training. They should consume 20 to 40 g of protein that includes 3 to 4 g of leucine per serving to increase muscle protein synthesis.

In addition, whey is an optimal postworkout protein because of its amino acid composition and the speed of amino acid release into the bloodstream. What many athletes often overlook is the importance of carbohydrate intake for building and repairing muscle. Carbohydrate can decrease muscle protein breakdown by stimulating insulin release. Resistance training athletes benefit from consuming carbohydrates and protein after strenuous workouts.

Attenuating Excess Inflammation Athletes who get the required amounts of leucine-rich protein and carbohydrate immediately after exercise turn that crucial time period from a catabolic state to an anabolic state. Post-game nutrition could be the most important in terms of recovery and long-term success. The mindset of most athletes after a game is that they can eat anything. Wherever the bus takes them, a glutton for food comes out.

But if they choose chicken nuggets and French fries over lean protein and smart carbs, they could be more inflamed and sore, and not reap the benefits of their workout or game. This rolls into the accountability portion of the big rocks. If the athlete knows the bus is headed to a fast food joint post-game, he or she should plan to bring high quality protein shake onto the bus.

It's no secret that athletes need more calories. Each day, the energy output of athletes is much higher than that of everyday people. During practices, games or an offseason workout, an athlete can burn anywhere from to 1, calories, and if they are not replaced, the athlete's body will suffer.

Without getting too complicated with macros, athletes should think about each meal and what it should contain. Every meal should have serving of lean protein, 1 serving of colorful vegetables or fruit, and servings of a healthy fat. Most meals should also include a slow-digesting, high-fiber carb such as brown rice, quinoa, oats or lentils.

The slow-digesting carb should be eaten either in the morning or around game—to ensures that the carbs will replace any lost muscle glycogen. Follow this meal plan, and the macros will be on point and aid in building muscle, endurance training and overall good health.

This may seem like an impossible task for busy athletes always on the go. But even when you're on the road, you should still try to abide by these macro principals at each meal.

But sometimes that's just not realistic, and you need to swing into a convenience store for a quick pick-me-up before or after a game. No matter where you are, you can get food with nutritional value. Even gas stations carry health bars that are high in smart carbs and protein—great options for the athlete on the go.

Athletes need better quality food than average people. Regardless of the food and no matter what the athlete is ingesting, it needs to hold nutritional value. If not, the body won't recover quickly and muscle synthesis could turn into degradation.

As a general rule, stay away from self proclaimed "fitness foods" like energy drinks, "Paleo packs" and bars with chapter-long lists of ingredients. Generally this stuff is a cornucopia of processed and often poor quality food, leading to subpar choices. Part of being an athlete means you have to understand the importance of nutrient rich foods and how they affect your performance.

All athletes should treat their body as a temple where chemical-filled foods don't belong.

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