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Ministry of Labor and Employment Ministry of Transport Ministry of Health GHS implementation status Transport of dangerous goods For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines The 12th revised edition of the UN Model Regulations has been implemented through national legislation. WHMIS requirements are meant to apply at points of sale or use rather than during shipment. Second, article 7 2 requires equal treatment in respect of tax. For domestic transport by road: It interprets the treaties , and has accelerated economic and political integration. Although this was not an impediment to actual purchase of shares, or receipt of dividends by any shareholder, the Court of Justice 's Grand Chamber agreed that it was disproportionate for the government's stated aim of protecting workers or minority shareholders.

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European Union law

Consent of mortgagee or exclusive licensee needed Amendments by applicants and patentees Amendments directed by court Amendments directed by Commissioner: Advertisement of amendment of complete specification Persons claiming under assignment or agreement Priority date of claims of certain amended specifications.. Objection cannot be taken to certain amended specifications Restriction on recovery of damages etc Interpretation of amended specifications Infringement by supply of products Burden of proof—infringement of patent for a process Relief for infringement of patent Application for relief from unjustified threats Notification of patent not a threat Liability of legal practitioner or patent attorney Simplified outline of this Chapter Simplified outline of this Part Reasonable requirements of the public Orders to be consistent with international agreements Dealing with allegation of contravention of application law PPI compulsory licences—applications for orders PPI compulsory licences—nature of orders PPI compulsory licences—applications heard together Revocation on surrender of patent Revocation of patents in other circumstances Commissioner to be given copies of orders Ceasing of innovation patents Termination of contract after patent ceases to be in force Certificate by Director as to associated technology Restoration of lapsed application Reinstatement of application as an international application Notice of prohibitions or restrictions on publication Jurisdiction of Federal Court Jurisdiction of other prescribed courts Commissioner may appear in appeals Powers of Federal Court Nominated persons and patentees Commonwealth and State authorities Exploitation of inventions by Crown Remuneration and terms for exploitation Exploitation of invention to cease under court order Supply of products by Commonwealth to foreign countries Declarations that inventions have been exploited Sale of forfeited articles Acquisition of inventions or patents by Commonwealth Assignment of invention to Commonwealth Prohibition of publication of information about inventions Effect of prohibition orders Disclosure of information to Commonwealth authority..

False representations about the Patent Office False representations about patents or patented articles Officers not to traffic in inventions Unauthorised disclosure of information by employees etc.

Other unauthorised disclosures of information Registration of particulars of patents etc Power of patentee to deal with patent False entries in Register Orders for rectification of Register Information obtainable from Commissioner Evidence—certificate and copies of documents Evidence of matters arising under PCT Registration of patent attorneys Acting or holding out without being registered Documents prepared by legal practitioners Documents prepared by a member of a partnership Time for starting prosecutions Deputy Commissioner of Patents Recovery of costs awarded by Commissioner Copies of examination reports to be communicated Making and signing applications etc Death of applicant or nominated person Exercise of discretionary power by Commissioner Costs where patent invalid in part Costs of attendance of patent attorney Publication of Official Journal etc Conduct of employees and agents of natural persons Fees payable under this Act Receipt of fees payable under New Zealand law Patents granted under Act Applications under Act Other applications and proceedings under Act The Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner This Act may be cited as the Patents Act Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods.

New Zealand Assistant Commissioner of Patents. New Zealand Commissioner of Patents. New Zealand Patents Minister. New Zealand patents official. Registrar of Companies of New Zealand. For the purposes of this Act, a complete application is to be taken to be associated with a provisional application if, and only if, the patent request filed in respect of the complete application identifies the provisional application and contains a statement to the effect that the applications are associated.

For the purposes of this Act, the following acts are not to be taken to be secret use of an invention in the patent area: Patentable inventions for the purposes of a standard patent. Patentable inventions for the purposes of an innovation patent. Certain inventions not patentable inventions for the purposes of an innovation patent.

A patent is not invalid merely because: The invalidity of a patent in relation to a claim does not affect its validity in relation to any other claim. A patent is not invalid, so far as the invention is claimed in any claim, merely because of: Objection cannot be taken to a patent request or complete specification in respect of an application for a patent of addition, and a patent of addition is not invalid, merely because the invention, so far as claimed, does not involve an inventive step, having regard to the publication or use of the main invention during the prescribed period.

Person may give notice of invalidity of an innovation patent. Commissioner to deal with notice in accordance with regulations. A patent application including a PCT application is to be taken to have been made on the filing date determined under the regulations.

Opposition to standard patent if a person other than nominated person eligible for grant of patent. Opposition to standard patent if nominated person eligible for grant of patent with other persons. Opposition to innovation patent if patentee not entitled to grant of patent but another person is. Opposition to innovation patent if patentee entitled to grant of patent with other person. Disclosures in prescribed documents may generally be taken into account. Commissioner may require prescribed documents be made available.

If the applicant does not withdraw the request before the day prescribed by the regulations, the application lapses: The Commissioner may disclose the result of any search made for the purpose of making a report under this Act. The Minister or any other person may, in accordance with the regulations, oppose the grant of a standard patent on one or more of the following grounds, but on no other ground: A patent may be granted to 2 or more nominated persons jointly.

The term of a standard patent is 20 years from the date of the patent. The term of an innovation patent is 8 years from the date of the patent. Classification of chemicals in accordance with GHS classification criteria Undertaking GHS training intermediate level for industries and government officers.

First draft GHS translation into Indonesian finalized. Final draft of GHS translation into Indonesian completed and publicized. Revision of other chemical regulations to be accordance with the Presidential Decree. Undertaking GHS trainings for industries and government officers.

Developing a new comic on GHS. Public consultation was closed on February Comments received during the consultation period are under consideration. Sixth revised edition of the GHS available in Japanese. Lao People's Democratic Republic.

These Plans are designed to provide a framework for the safe and effective management of chemicals. The results of the comprehensibility training held in October as well as those of the situation and gap analysis were used for the development of GHS implementation activities during Sectoral implementation plans for health, agriculture and industry as well as a National Implementation Strategy for the transport sector were completed during A decree stipulating principles, rules and measures for controlling all activities relating to import, export, production, distribution, storage, use and disposal of pesticides was issued and translated into English.

Several awareness raising activities were also conducted during The 12th revised edition of the UN Model Regulations has been adopted as a national standard.

Tenth Schedules; - Safety Data Sheets: Eleventh Schedule; - Transport: Fifteenth Schedule; - Storage: Sixteenth Schedule For international transport of dangerous goods see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines Additional information: GHS implementation milestones Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines.

Implemented since 2 July Legislation applicable to all new and existing substances since 1 July GHS implementation status Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For domestic and intracommunitary traffic, see European Union and European Economic Area Other sectors Implemented as from 20 January See European Union and European Economic Area..

Other sectors No information available. Agencies responsible for GHS implementation: Compliance with this order for the following chemicals shall be in accordance with the following schedule: GHS implementation status Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For domestic and intracommunitary traffic, see European Union and European Economic Area..

For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines Other sectors: Deadline for classification of chemicals under the ISHA: The following GHS hazard categories are not adopted: Category 4; Acute toxicity: Sub-categories 1A, 1B, 1C and Category 3 i. Sub-category 2B only Category 1 and sub-category 2A are adopted ; Aquatic toxicity: Acute 2 and 3. Research projects to analyse the impact of GHS implementation; Creation of an inter-ministerial Committee to coordinate the process of harmonization of existing legislation with the GHS; Revision of public notice Notice No.

Release of the classification and labelling results and SDS according to the GHS for substances for information only; classification not mandatory at www. GHS implementation status Focal points: Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For domestic transport by road: GHS implementation status Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines Other sectors Implemented National legislation implementing the GHS was adopted on 29 June Ministry of Manpower MOM: Establishment of a multi-agency public-private GHS implementation taskforce in to oversee and coordinate the implementation of the GHS in Singapore.

All government agencies impacted by GHS as well as chemical industry representatives are members of the taskforce. The GHS implementation taskforce has agreed to focus on training and capacity building. This process of awareness raising started in April through channels such as business association newsletters, training courses, public seminars and conferences. Development of an internet portal to help companies check for SDS compliance.

Publication of Singapore Standard SS SS is the result of the revision of two earlier standards — SS Applies to the transportation and storage of dangerous goods by road in Singapore.

Also provides standard hazard communication elements including labels and safety data sheets. Transport and storage of dangerous goods" SS As part of the programme a study on the implications of implementing the GHS and the development of an implementation strategy for South Africa was concluded in December Review of legislation for classification and labelling of chemicals and Safety Data Sheets as well as policy instruments to ensure alignment with the GHS requirements.

Release of a draft regulation on Classification and Labelling of Chemical Substances for public comment. Comments provided during the public comment period were considered and incorporated into the draft regulation as appropriate.

The new regulation has been recommended for promulgation to the Minister of Labour. It provides that compliance with the national standard on the GHS and the current national system is allowed during the transition period so that the transition at a national level is facilitated while at the same time accommodating international trade requirements. The transitional period has been aligned with that of international trading partners and is now 3 years for substances and 7 years for mixtures Following the promulgation of the GHS regulation, an inter-departmental committee will be established in by the Department of Labour to develop a coordinated legislative implementation strategy to ensure elimination of overlap of jurisdictional mandates.

The harmonized legislative implementation strategy will include compliance and enforcement requirements, appropriate budget allocations, support to industry for transition and establishment of a permanent approach to ongoing input into international discussions and alignment of the effective dates of all legislative amendments. Awareness raising is to be undertaken at all forums dealing with chemical safety and once the Regulations have been promulgated, programmes focused on employers will be launched.

Specific courses to empower workers in understanding the elements of GHS within a specific Occupational Health and Safety focus should be developed.

In consensus among all responsible authorities has been reached to implement GHS into Swiss legislation. This intention was also supported by all Swiss companies which have been interviewed in the context of an economic impact assessment. Thereby the implementation of the GHS, harmonised with the European Union in terms of contents, starting time and duration of the overall transition period, was considered as the most favorable option by all stakeholders. To meet these requirements the introduction of GHS in Switzerland will follow a multi-step process.

On 1 February , entry into force of the amended Swiss chemicals ordinance with a view to facilitate trade of chemicals that are already labelled according to GHS. However, additional hazard classes of the GHS are accepted on product labels. At present, the GHS option is limited to products sold to professional users but an extension of the option to consumer products is planned at a later stage and will be supported by additional information for consumers.

In the next years further steps will be necessary to fully implement the GHS. An obligation to classify and label all substances and mixtures according to GHS, including consumer products, biocides and pant protection products. The introduction of transitional provisions for the reclassification of substances and mixtures and the abrogation of the current system by Amendment of Swiss downstream legislation acts e.

Ministry of Public Health: Hazardous Substance Act of B. Label and toxic level of hazardous substances under Department of Agriculture control B. Labels and toxic levels of hazardous substances under Food and Drug Administration control B. Duty of Factory Enterprises B. Workplace safety related to dangerous substances B.

GHS implementation status Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines National legislation for the transport of dangerous goods in Thailand is based on the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous goods: General requirements for multi-modal transport of dangerous goods B.

Requirements for the transport of dangerous goods by road and rail B. Creation of a National GHS Implementation Sub-Committee, under the Hazardous Substance Committee, with the participation of representatives from Government agencies and from stakeholder groups in business and industry, as well as public interest and labour organizations First draft of the Notification of Ministry of Industry B.

Focal Point Ministry of Environment and Urbanization: It is mandatory for substances since 1 June and will become mandatory for mixtures as from 1 June United States of America. Additional information and guidance is available at OSHA's website Transport of dangerous goods GHS implementation status Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For national transport: Department of Transportation DOT: In October , the EPA conducted a public meeting with stakeholders to review the issues raised in the White Paper and comments, and to solicit additional input on possible ways forward.

EPA is reviewing next steps in light of the input received, seeking additional data, and exploring possibilities for GHS pilot activities. Results of initial pilot activities were expected to become available in Consumer Products Focal point: A preliminary legal feasibility assessment was also conducted to assess what, if any, changes would be needed to the FHSA should certain provisions of the GHS be adopted and implemented.

The staff work indicated that a more complete technical comparison is needed. This review will determine which sections of the GHS might be considered for implementation, as well as whether statutory or regulatory changes would be necessary for eventual implementation. The establishment of a classification and labelling system based on the GHS was identified as a priority during the process of elaboration of a National Plan of implementation of the Stockholm Convention. First national workshop on chemical hazard communication August ; GHS included as part of the courses on chemical safety for undergraduates mandatory and graduates Faculty of Chemistry, National University.

GHS implementation status Transport of dangerous goods Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines Other sectors Standards for classification and labelling of chemicals have been in place in Viet Nam since There are a number of government ministries involved in chemicals management, including: The following 28 countries are Member States of the EU: For supply and use sectors: Opportunities Vacancies Internship Programme.

Resources Statistical Database Evaluations. WHO Recommended classification of pesticides by hazard. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code IMDG Code Amendment is harmonized except as otherwise specified in table 1 with the 18th revised edition of the UN Model Regulations and will come into force on 1 January for two years although it may be applied in whole or in part, on a voluntary basis as from 1 January Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal.

A joint correspondence working group between the Open-Ended working group of the Basel Convention on hazard characteristics and the Sub-Committee of experts on the GHS was established in Transport of dangerous goods. Implemented Australia has implemented the third revised edition of the GHS for chemical classification and hazard communication requirements for workplace chemicals.

For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For domestic and intracommunitary traffic, see European Union and European Economic Area. For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines The 12th revised edition of the UN Model Regulations has been implemented through national legislation.

GHS implementation status o ther sectors. GHS implementation milestones all sectors. Transport of Dangerous Goods Directorate. Implemented Amendment 6 to the Canadian transportation of dangerous goods regulations entered into force on 20 February , following its publication in Part II of the Canada Gazette.

Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Implemented Two national standards consistent with the 16th revised edition of the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Classification and code of dangerous goods For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines.

Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For domestic and intracommunitary traffic, see European Union and European Economic Area. Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism. Transport of Dangerous Goods. Implemented Decree of Ministry of Industry No. Peer review of the draft of GHS translation into Indonesian.

Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For national transport of dangerous goods: Main relevant legislation all sectors: Sixteenth Schedule For international transport of dangerous goods see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines.

New Zealand Transport Agency. Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods, see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines For domestic and intracommunitary traffic, see European Union and European Economic Area.. Implemented For national transport: Research projects to analyse the impact of GHS implementation; Creation of an inter-ministerial Committee to coordinate the process of harmonization of existing legislation with the GHS;.

Intensive course on classification and labelling and preparation of SDS;. Implemented For domestic transport by road: Approval of the following standards on hazard classification based on the 3rd revised edition of the GHS: Implemented For international transport of dangerous goods see Implementation through international legal instruments, recommendations, codes and guidelines Transport of Dangerous Goods legislation in Singapore is based on the UN Model Regulations and related international instruments.

Purpose of guideline Section 5. The purpose of this guideline is to provide background information on the designations for carcinogenicity, reproductive effects, sensitization, and L endnotes as referenced in section 5.

Both agencies provide information on their web sites. Substances designated by the ACGIH as reproductive toxins have the potential for causing adverse reproductive effects on female and male reproductive organs, tissues, or cells; on fertility; on the embryo or fetus; and may result in developmental abnormalities; tumours; and adverse effects on the newborn. This provision refers to substances that have been designated by ACGIH as having a sensitization effect.

Methyl methacrylate is an example of a substance with dermal sensitization effects. For some substances, such as isophorone diisocyanate and natural latex rubber, the ACGIH determined that the sensitization effect of these substances is a primary determining factor on which the TLV is based. Diethylene triamine is an example of such a substance. For a substance with a TLV based on sensitization, the TLV is meant to protect workers from becoming sensitized to the substance. However, it is not intended to and likely will not protect those workers who have already become sensitized.

Depending on the substance, workers can become sensitized to the substance through the respiratory system, the skin, or the eyes. Sensitization often involves a response by the body's immune system. Initially, there may be little or no response to a sensitizing substance. However, after a person is sensitized, subsequent exposure may cause severe reactions even at low exposure concentrations, including at levels below the exposure limit.

As indicated by section 5. In selecting a suitable substitute, the employer is not expected to pursue substitutes for materials that are essential or integral to the product or process. Nevertheless, the employer is required to meet the requirements of sections 5. Also note that section 5.

For substances with sensitization and adverse reproductive effects, the designations are based on ACGIH. Given the limits to the currency and completeness of information on these effects when based on such lists, the designations in the Table may not reflect currently available information on such effects that may be found, for example, on updated safety data sheets SDS used in the workplace.

To address such matters the Regulation also requires, under the provisions of Part 5 , the use of such updated information in assessing adverse health effects and establishing safe work procedures. Purpose of guideline The purpose of this guideline is to provide additional information about protective reassignment and exposure control plans.

Protective policy The policy and procedures may include protective reassignment, meaning that a worker may be relocated from a high-risk to a low-risk work area, based on the risk assessment carried out for the exposure potential.

The policy and procedures must be appropriate to the level of risk. Since exposure levels to substances exhibiting reproductive and sensitization toxic effects must be kept as low as reasonably achievable, section 5. For example, at a given level of exposure in the workplace, the risk may be minimal. In this case, a policy that informs workers about the material and its reproductive toxicity or sensitizing capability may be all that is required. For further guidance, contact WorkSafeBC.

Purpose of guideline The purpose of this revised guideline is to provide guidance around investigating possible exposure to a hazardous substance.

Conducting an investigation into possible exposure Under section 5. Where signs or symptoms are shown to be associated with workplace exposure, section 5.

The employer must consult with the joint committee or worker health and safety representative as applicable.

These requirements are consistent with sections 3. The investigation of symptoms should include an initial review of hazardous substances present in the workplace with an emphasis on those materials to which the worker s exhibiting signs or symptoms of overexposure may have been exposed.

For hazardous products controlled under the Hazardous Products Act and the Hazardous Products Regulations , this would mean a review of the safety data sheets SDS to identify the hazardous ingredients and toxicological properties. For complaints associated with indoor air quality sections 4. Once the hazardous substance has been identified, the employer should consider the symptoms workers are experiencing to determine if there is a relationship between the symptoms and the exposure.

Not only should the substance be considered, but also the circumstances that give rise to the exposure. If a relationship is found, then a further investigation should be conducted to identify a means of controlling the hazard. When identifying a means of controlling the hazards, the requirements of section 5.

The records should include the following information:. Occupational Health and Safety Regulation section 5. WorkSafeBC publishes this exposure limit table in accordance with its mandate under the Workers Compensation Act to provide information and promote public awareness. This table does not represent the official exposure limits and designations.

WorkSafeBC does not warrant the accuracy or the completeness of the information in this table, and none of its board of directors, employees or agents shall be liable to any person for any loss or damage of any nature arising from this version. Where an exposure limit is adopted by exception, the official exposure limit is found in Policy R5.

Notations column The notations identify substances considered to be carcinogens, sensitizers and those with adverse reproductive effect under section 5. G - as measured by the vertical elutriator, cotton-dust sampler, see TLV Documentation.

I - see Special Notes in Table 1 below J - does not include stearates of toxic metals. L - No exposure limit. Exposure by all routes should be carefully controlled to levels as low as possible. M - refers to sulfuric acid contained in strong inorganic acid mists.

N - the 8-hour TWA listed in the Table is for the total dust. O - sampled by method that does not collect vapour. P - application restricted to conditions in which there are negligible aerosol exposures.

V - vapour and inhalable aerosol. The employer or the employer's agent must submit to the Board drawings and specifications for an existing or proposed ventilation system if requested by the Board. It does not apply to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC systems, which are covered under section 4.

Officers may request plans to evaluate compliance with a previously written order or with the general requirements for industrial ventilation. It may be appropriate to request plans in any of the following situations:. Examples of highly toxic materials include methylene bisphenyl isocyanate MDI , hexamethylene diisocyanate HDI , and other substances identified in section 5. The requirement under section 4.

For example, installation of a ventilation system may be required in situations where the building has no existing HVAC system or the HVAC system is inadequate for the occupancy. All such work, however, is subject to the approval of the owner, acting reasonably. In the context of this section, "the owner, acting reasonably" is taken to mean that the owner cannot be unreasonable when rejecting the project. Generally, the operation and maintenance of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning HVAC system is the responsibility of the building owner or owner's agent, although this responsibility may be varied by commercial agreement.

A statute or regulation overrides a private contract, therefore the requirements of this section take precedence over any term of a lease agreement that might be contrary to the responsibility cast by the Regulation.

However, the responsibility for the cost of the installation or upgrade will likely be determined by the lease agreement. The latter is covered under section 4. Table sets out situations when recirculation is not permitted, when it is permitted with written approval from WorkSafeBC, and when it is permitted without such approval. The table states that WorkSafeBC may grant approval for recirculation for "any contaminant not otherwise listed in the table. Recirculation of substances identified by section 5.

Authorities having jurisdiction over environmental air standards are the B. The term "likelihood" in subsection 2 refers to the probability that a worker may be exposed to discharge air from a ventilation system. If conditions, such as the direction of the prevailing wind, the discharge velocity of the exhaust air, or thermal effects in the air stream, routinely direct contaminants towards areas where workers are located, then this section applies.

Contaminated air that is allowed to escape through a wall or ceiling opening could re-enter the work area or an adjacent location. If this situation is thought to exist, the problem needs to be investigated to identify the nature of the contaminants, as well as the employer responsible for generating them.

Typically, in determining if a worker overexposure to the limits set by section 5. The quantity of air contaminant discharged from a ventilation system falls under the jurisdiction of Environment Canada or the B.

Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. WorkSafeBC's jurisdiction is the exposure of the worker, who may be located some distance away from the discharge point, and due to mixing and dilution, the concentration at that location may be significantly lower than at the discharge point.

In determining the practicability of taking action to control an objectionable odour arising from discharged air, first determine if the contaminants can be identified:. A decision to issue orders to control the odour will be determined on the basis of the duration of exposure, the availability of control technology and the offensiveness of the emission.

If workers are experiencing other health effects, such as sensitivity or acute reactions, WorkSafeBC's occupational health physicians should be consulted. However, before recommending that the position or the height of the stack be altered, the officer should consider whether this change will constitute a further hazard that is not practicable to control for example, whether the required stack height will be unstable or whether the new position affect the structural integrity of the building.

If there is a further hazard, alternative control technologies for objectionable odours should be considered. A dust collector having an internal volume greater than 0. Purpose of guideline This guideline explains terms used in Regulation section 5. There are a series of NFPA standards that are relevant to the control of fire and explosion hazards from combustible dusts and an employer should review the standard s relevant to the application in question.

Information in this guideline references mainly the following NFPA standards, which are available for review online at http: In addition, there are specifications in the BC Building Code e. Employers should not rely solely on the generic information in this guideline to minimize hazards that could lead to a dust explosion.

The entire relevant standard s or code s should be consulted for complete information. What is a "dust collector having an internal volume greater than 0. The collection system is a pneumatic conveying system that is specifically designed to capture dust at the point of generation, sometimes from multiple pieces of equipment, and convey the particulate to a point of collection. The system includes the collection hood, conveyance ducting, and flexible hoses, exhaust fan, motor, and dust collector.

The dust collector, also called an air-material separator, is a device used to separate the particulate material from the air stream, and includes but is not limited to cyclones, baghouse and media-type filter collectors, wet-type collectors, electrostatic precipitators, and enclosureless units. A cyclone is defined in NFPA as a cylindrical type of dust collector used to separate particulate from the air stream by centrifugal force, having an enclosure of circular cross-section, a tangential air and material inlet, an air exhaust outlet, and a material discharge.

In order to determine whether section 5. The internal volume of a cyclone is considered to be the volume of the collector from the tangential inlet through the cylindrical and conical area, and includes the chute and dust container that holds the captured dust.

A baghouse dust collector is an air-material separator designed and used to remove dust from the transport air through a filter medium of suspended bags that are contained within an enclosure.

The internal volume is considered to be the total volume inside the enclosure from the entrance point of the air-particle mixture, and includes the volume of the container designed to hold the captured dust. NFPA defines an enclosureless dust collector as an air-material separator where filtration is accomplished by passing dust-laden air through filter media, collecting the dust on the inside of the filter media and allowing cleaned air to exit to the surrounding area Note: See also Regulation section 5.

The filter medium is not enclosed, is hand shaken and is under positive pressure during use. Removal of the collected dust is not continuous or mechanical.

The internal volume of an enclosureless dust collector is considered to be the air volume inside all the bags plus the air volume of the container designed to hold the captured dust. If the manufacturer's specifications for a dust collector do not include the internal volume of the dust collector, this volume can be calculated from measurements of height and area.

What is a combustible dust? This definition replaces a previous definition that required the particles to be, on average, less than micron 0. The newer definition applies more broadly to include elongated particles such as paper dust and some agglomerates, for which particle diameter is not a useful concept. An explosion can occur if the deflagration occurs in an enclosed space such as a dust collector, duct, or building. Not all dusts are combustible. For example, substances that are stable inorganic oxides e.

Therefore dust clouds of Portland cement, sand, limestone, etc. Materials that are combustible and that can give rise to dust explosions include, but are not limited to. Combustible dusts have varying limits of flammability. These are usually expressed in terms of grams per cubic metre. For example, aluminum dust may be listed as requiring an airborne concentration of 30 grams per cubic metre for a combustible atmosphere to exist whereas coal dust may require 60 grams per cubic metre.

A layer of dust as thin as a dime dispersed throughout a room can create an explosion hazard. This is not a comprehensive list and a dust should be considered to be combustible unless it is known otherwise. For certain, substances that are combustible as particulates should be considered as combustible dusts. OSHA also publishes a list of substances for which there is a risk of combustible dust explosion, at https: What is a dust explosion?

Dust explosions can be very destructive. The pressure from the primary explosion can be intense enough to dislodge dust off walls, beams, ledges, machines, and other surfaces. This dislodged dust then mixes with air, creating a much larger dust cloud which can then be ignited and react explosively creating a secondary catastrophic explosion.

Location and construction of dust collectors The guidance in this guideline is taken mainly from the five NFPA standards listed above in the Background section. Information provided here represents some of the control measures from the NFPA standards. The NFPA standards also contain specifications not directly related to location or construction of the dust collector e. These specifications are not directly related to Regulation subsection 5. Employers should not rely solely on the generic information in this guideline to minimize hazards leading to dust explosions.

The entire relevant standard s should be consulted for complete information. Location of a dust collector Regulation section 5.

Dust collectors used for collection of combustible dust are appropriately located outdoors - this is usually the preferred location with respect to compliance with this section of the Regulation. Under certain circumstances and conditions, it is acceptable to locate a dust collector indoors. Codes and NFPA standard s should be consulted for complete information on these circumstances and conditions, but some general guidance is provided here.

The BC Fire Code also requires, when exhausted air is returned to the building, that the dust-collection system be designed so that the exhaust fan and ancillary equipment are automatically shut down in the event of a fire or an explosion inside the dust collector. Construction of a dust collector should also include isolation devices where ductwork returning to a building from the dust collector can provide a path for a fireball and a pressure wave to enter the building.

A number of NFPA standards also provide guidance for the location of a dust collector, and this guidance is acceptable as long as it does not contradict British Columbia code requirements such as the BC Fire Code. For example, NFPA 61 Chapter 10 specifies location criteria for dust collectors used in agriculture and food processing facilities , including operations involving dry agricultural bulk materials and their by-products, and dusts that include grains, oilseeds, agricultural seeds, legumes, sugar, flour, spices, feeds, and other related materials.

An outside location of the dust collector is required, with several exceptions listed in the standard. NFPA describes specific dust collector location criteria for a number of combustible metals and has specific chapters for control of combustible dust hazards from alkali metals, aluminum, magnesium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, zirconium, and other combustible metals.

NFPA provides specifications for control of dust explosions from materials not specifically addressed by another more specific NFPA standard.

This standard specifies that, where an explosion hazard exists, air-material separators be located outside of buildings. The standard provides some exceptions to this specification in Chapter 7. NFPA provides general specifications for control of fires and explosions from processes involving sulfur dust, and includes specific location criteria for the dust collector.

NFPA provides specifications for selecting the location for a dust collector in wood processing and woodworking facilities. Outdoor locations are recommended.

The standard recommends that dust collectors not be located on the roof of a building. Indoor locations are permitted by the standard under special circumstances, which are listed in the standard for enclosed and enclosureless dust collectors. Construction of a dust collector Dust collectors used for combustible dust need to be designed and constructed entirely of non-combustible material suitable for the use intended Note: If the aluminum flakes off or is struck by a foreign object, the heat of impact could be sufficient to cause ignition of the aluminum particle, thereby initiating a fire.

However, filter bags and explosion vent panels fabricated from combustible material are acceptable. Dust collectors need to be constructed to prevent leakage of dust into the rest of the workplace and to minimize internal ledges or other points of dust accumulation e. This is important since an accumulation of as little as 0. Dust collectors need to have independent supporting structures capable of supporting the weight of the collector, the material being collected, and any water from extinguishing systems that will not readily drain from the system.

NFPA 61 Chapter 10 specifies criteria for construction of a dust collector used for agricultural and food processing operations. NFPA describes construction criteria for dust collection in metal operations. NFPA provides general specifications for control of fires and explosions from processes involving sulfur dust, and includes specific construction criteria.

NFPA describes location and construction criteria for wood processing and woodworking facilities see especially section 8. Explosion relief venting and suppression Explosion relief vents are panels or doors that are deliberate points of weakness. If they are of the correct size and construction, and properly positioned, they can help to safely vent an explosion in a dust collector so that workers are not endangered. These relief vents should be designed and constructed by experts.

NFPA 68 Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting addresses the design, location, installation, maintenance, and use of devices and systems that vent the combustion gases and pressures resulting from a deflagration within an enclosure. The standard specifies that deflagration venting be arranged to avoid injury from the vent discharge and that the material discharged from an enclosure during the venting of a deflagration be directed outside to a safe location.

NFPA includes information on deflagration venting, suppression systems, mechanical and chemical isolation systems, flame front diverters, and abort gates to lower the risk to workers in the event of an explosion inside a dust collector. If mobile equipment powered by an internal combustion engine is operated indoors or in an enclosed work area:.

If a worker is or may be exposed to an exhaust gas component in concentrations exceeding the applicable exposure limits, exhaust gas scrubbers, catalytic converters, or other engineering controls must be installed. Mobile equipment "Mobile equipment" is defined in Part 16 Mobile equipment of the Regulation , as "a wheeled or tracked vehicle which is engine or motor powered, together with attached or towed equipment, but not a vehicle operated on fixed rails or tracks.

Indoor and enclosed work areas Section 5. Such areas may include but are not limited to vehicle parking garages, tractor trailers, ferries with enclosed or partly enclosed car decks, or a building under construction, at a stage when natural air flows may become restricted. It should be noted that section 5. Other requirements such as section 5. Air contaminants in exhaust emissions Section 5.

Studies have shown that the HC components of the exhaust are generally not significant until the level of CO produced results in worker exposures well in excess of the applicable exposure limits. As a result, generally only CO or oxides of nitrogen principally nitrogen dioxide or NO 2 , need to be considered when these fuel types are being used.

Diesel Determining primary air contaminants of concern from diesel powered equipment is more problematic, as the number of contaminants of significance can be considerable. The major components of diesel exhaust include carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide SO 2 , diesel particulate matter and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons PAH. Diesel particulate matter is a complex aggregate of solid and liquid material.

Diesel particulate is very fine and as such is totally respirable. Engine servicing and maintenance - section 5. Some general considerations related to this requirement are provided below along with recommendations for specific fuel types. General considerations This requirement of section 5. The levels of exhaust contaminants from engines of all fuel types can be reduced by an effective program of regular servicing and maintenance.

The program should consider both the specifics of how the servicing and maintenance is to be performed, as well as the frequency. Maintenance and servicing should be performed in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer or those of a qualified mechanic for the type of equipment being used. The frequency of servicing should be determined by the information from the manufacturer or mechanic, together with the results of workplace assessment and ongoing monitoring.

Minimizing the concentration of one contaminant in an engine's exhaust may result in the increase of another, in addition to potentially adversely compromising engine performance. Hence, "minimizing the concentrations," in the context of this guideline, refers to striking the optimum balance between contaminant emission levels and engine performance.

Experience has shown that specific obligations need to be met, depending on the fuel type, in order to ensure that contaminant levels are minimized in the exhaust. However, to ensure that the concentrations of air contaminants in the exhaust are effectively minimized for these fuel types, exhaust emission levels should be directly measured. Exhaust gas measurement completes the preventive maintenance program and gives the employer a good quality control tool for determining an adequate schedule for adjustments and parts replacement.

As a general rule, exhaust emissions should be analyzed before performing any servicing or maintenance, as well as afterwards. The need to analyze for NO 2 can usually be determined from workplace air monitoring results.

Emission levels should be measured both at idle and also under load. The optimum balance between good power efficiency and emissions will vary depending on the engine and fuel type. This balance will usually be achieved when the ratio of air to fuel is the exact amount required for complete combustion e. It should be noted that if CO levels are much below 0. For engines equipped with catalytic converters, a thermocouple installed either downstream of the catalyst or both upstream and downstream, can be used as an indicator of whether the catalyst has reached operating temperature emissions will be considerably higher until this temperature is reached.

Indoor emissions can be reduced by keeping equipment outside until the catalyst has reached operating temperature. Thermocouples can also help determine if the catalytic converter needs replacement, that is, when the operating temperature cannot be reached.

A gasoline powered engine may produce a visible smoke in the exhaust and a significant odour if it is running significantly out of tune or is otherwise in need of servicing or repair. Engines powered by propane or natural gas may not, so the absence of significant odour or smoke haze in the workplace is not a reliable indicator of acceptable air quality.

Diesel It is essential that diesel engines be serviced and maintained in accordance with the schedule recommended by the manufacturer.

Particular attention should be paid to the regular replacement of the fuel filter and to fuel injector servicing. In addition, diesel fuel designed for on-road use i. Visible smoke from the exhaust of a diesel engine may be an indicator of the need for tuning or servicing as follows:.

Where visible smoke is excessive, opacity testing, using the protocol in Society of Automotive Engineers SAE smoke test procedure J, or other applicable particulate emission test may be needed in order to demonstrate that emissions have been minimized. Work area assessment - section 5. In most cases actual measurement of air contaminants or an indicator of them will be necessary on a regular basis, in order to meet the requirements of section 5. Measurement of the air contaminant levels may not be needed in circumstances where contaminant levels measured are minimal and exhaust emission controls have been provided, an effective service maintenance program is in place, and workplace ventilation rates are adequate.

If at any time the workplace assessment suggests that workers may be exposed to levels above the applicable exposure limit, then equipment operation should be suspended until additional controls are provided.

Measuring exposure to air contaminants must be conducted using occupational hygiene methods acceptable to WorkSafeBC refer to guideline G5. Both the short term exposure limit as well as the 8-hour limit must be considered for contaminants such as CO. Since NO 2 is assigned a ceiling limit, maximum exposure must be anticipated and evaluated.

Re-evaluation is required if circumstances of use are altered which could increase exposure. Preliminary assessment In most cases, a preliminary assessment to determine the general suitability of equipment should be conducted before the equipment is put into operation. An additional air contaminant assessment may also be required, depending on the results of the preliminary assessment. Air contaminant assessment Some guidance is provided below on the circumstances in which an additional air contaminant assessment is needed, and on acceptable levels of air contaminants for specific engine fuel types.

In all cases, the employer must ensure that worker exposure does not exceed the exposure limits set out in section 5. The level of air contaminants emitted in the engine's exhaust will generally be significantly higher when the engine is first started from cold. Thus, whenever possible, the equipment should be brought to operating temperature outdoors or with the exhaust vented directly outside, before running the equipment inside.

The initial air testing should be conducted under the conditions in the workplace that are expected to result in the highest exposure levels. If air contaminant levels under these "worst case" conditions are well within the applicable exposure limits e.

Air testing considerations are provided below for engines operating on different types of fuels. In some cases where more than one fuel type is involved for example in vehicle parking garages or ferries a broader range of air contaminants may need to be considered to adequately assess exposure. However, even if CO levels are low, nitrogen dioxide NO 2 exposure levels will also need to be evaluated. Very low CO levels usually indicate that engine is running lean, which will result in higher NO 2 emissions.

Depending on the level of exposure, the suggested frequency for air contaminant assessment is as follows:. Diesel Although evaluating worker exposure to air contaminants generated by diesel engines tends to be more challenging than with other common fuel types, due to the number of potential air contaminants, diesel exhaust emissions are usually more visible. For example, they contain over ten times more particulate matter or smoke than gasoline engine emissions. In addition they are more directly irritating.

As such, a more subjective evaluation can also prove useful as a workplace exposure assessment tool. Since diesel exhaust generally contains relatively low levels of carbon monoxide, CO alone cannot be used as a reliable indicator of exposure. Nitrogen dioxide NO 2 is a principal concern, but contaminants such as aldehydes and diesel particulate matter may also be significant.

As a minimum, exposure evaluation will need to include CO and NO 2. Where exposure to both of these contaminants is within the applicable exposure limits, and where particulate smoke levels are not significant and workers are not experiencing any irritant or other ill effects that may be attributable to exposure to diesel exhaust, direct evaluation of other air contaminants may not be required.

Where diesel powered equipment is being regularly operated indoors or in an enclosed work area, air monitoring for air contaminants other than CO and NO 2 should be conducted, unless contaminant levels are well within their respective exposure limits. Once the relationship between CO and NO 2 and other diesel exhaust contaminant levels has been established for a given set of workplace circumstances, a single gas such as CO may be used for continuous or ongoing monitoring purposes.

In this instance, the CO level to be used as an indicator of acceptable air quality will be significantly less than the 8-hour occupational exposure limit of 25 ppm. Ambient CO levels of less than 10 ppm are to be achieved before other contaminants can be assumed to be within acceptable levels.

For certain applications, such as where heavy duty or larger diesel engines are being operated, carbon dioxide CO 2 may also be used as an indicator of contaminant levels. For example, where CO 2 levels are less than about ppm and the subjective criteria referred to above have also been met, then all contaminant levels associated with diesel exhaust are likely within acceptable limits. If representative indicators such as CO 2 are used as the only indicator of harmful exposure to exhaust components, the employer is expected to support this approach using additional assessment criteria.

Purpose of guideline This guideline provides information on the circumstances in which emission controls are expected on mobile equipment powered by internal combustion engines, when used indoors. The guideline deals largely with section 5.

It explains what is meant by the terms "regularly operated" and "indoors" in section 5. The context of section 5. Typically this requirement applies to engines that are fixed in place and to those locations where vehicles undergo engine repair or maintenance.

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