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A dog in full, beautiful flowing coat is much more attractive. Hard to not use those interchangeably…. I think I really needed to write my story to move on a little. He has always slept by bed Now I sleep on the floor by him and moniter his respitory rate. The Vetmedin is such a large pill it was hard to give even a half of a pill to my dog also.


Can you send it to frysgirl gmail. Allison your post is what gave me hope for my 10 year old Chihuahua with a stage 4 heart murmur. I would very much like to have a copy of your PDF on amounts of supplements. My Melia weighs 7 pounds which is optimum weight for her. I just switched to a low salt pet food for starters. She is having the occasional seizure now which freaks me out. I never realized the Enalpril could contribute to the coughing. The vet said it was okay to give her one every 12 hours, but I have not done that after reading the thread here.

Thank you so much for your input. Gave misty a kiss for you while she was getting her q3h doggy massage.

My heart breaks for you Juliette. Take care,and keep us informed of your progress. Take comfort your precious is no longer suffering and running free and happy. A special guardian to look over your child. If it continues to hurt for much longer maybe you could talk to your dr.

There are various ways to help you through your grief that they can discuss with you,and please know I am here if you need to chat anytime. She became quite ill in july,and we did not expect her to make it 2 weeks and here we are in November.

My car never moved without her,standing between the seat on the look out for moose,and bopping to the music when she heard a song she liked!

Write your feelings down and send them to your vet. If it stops this happening to one more beloved pet your foxy will not have died in vain. Hang in there and I am here for you.

Hi Alison, Could you forward the pdf with the holistic dosage info to my email as well? You have given my heart hope. I had two cavalier King Charles sisters- I just lost Kiley Last week from complications with her heart and her sister who had previously been Diagnosed last year with a grade 4 heart murmur and CHF is having another day episode.

I have her on enalapril, vetmedin and Salix twice a day- but I have always leaned toward The holistic as being much more productive and better in the long term for them! Thank you so much!!!! My email is kiddlehopper hotmail. Hi Allison, Thank you for all this information. My 13 year old yorkie, Sparkey, was just diagnosed with an enlarged heart. He is coughing a lot. My vet put him on hydrocodone to suppress his cough.

I rather go holistically. I have him on tummeric pills. I would rather go your way. Can you kindly send me your pdf file? Sparkey is 8 pounds. Thank you so much Allison. May God bless you. Howdy is a He has a heart murmur and cushings disease. I too started cooking him his own meals months ago. It made a huge difference. I just stick chicken breast, a piece of liver for flavor eventhough high in cholesterol can of pumpkin, brown rice and water in the crock pot.

When done, I run it through the food grinder. It made a huge difference with the coughing but now the coughing has returned. Of course, this always happens on the weekends! I started him on Amoxil yesterday to prevent pneumonia.

I know he needs a shot of prednisone but taking him to the vet is so stressful on him. His tongue gets purple. Right now, his tongue and gums are a great shade of pink! Any suggestions for him until the vet opens in the morning? I have Prednisone here but with his Cushings, I am reluctant to give it to him. Hi Ruth, While I hate to give any advise when it could be wrong but I can tell you what my vet told me that it would have been OK to give my Precious another dose of her diuretic, this it what the emergency clinic gave my Precious a shot of Lasix and oxygen.

They tried to keep her overnight but I said no she needs to be with me. I now how you feel it always happens on weekends and nights. Then next time your at your vet ask him what you can give Howdy if it happens again on a weekend because you know it will , perhaps he can give you a prescription for hydrocodone also which suppresses cough. I know it is frustrating and a never ending battle with drugs that only work temporarily. I too have a 10 lb. I was hoping you could send me your holistic regiment and dosage information.

Along with hydrocodone at night. Teddy is 10 lbs.. I have ordered everything on your list. I was so worried that I might be hurting her and not helping her even though she seems better, less coughing. I also give dandelion. Could you tell me how much per day? Thank you so much for your post!! Hi Allison, I saw your post on your successful holistic approach for Chase. As my maltese has enlarged heart and coughing, would you pls share with me yr holistic protocols and dosage?

Please let me know…thank you. Hi Laurie, not sure if your question is for me or other people who have commented. Supplements given are not a cure just a way to help your dog live a longer healthier life. Allison, just read your 2 year old update about Chase. The one with the herbal remedies. First, how is he doing? Just started Vetmedin 2 days ago after 2 fainting episodes which occurred after coughing fits. I want to do the best for her. I wrote down everything you were giving Chase but have no idea of how much of each.

Lexy is 8 lbs. My dog is Tonka he is a spunky 13 year old sable Pomeranian. Before the vet did any tests he said CHF with collapsing trachea. He has always had the backwards sneeze not the actual issue, however most think it is all of his life.

I do feel it is the collapsing trachea not CHF. When u say home made food, what did u make him? Any tips on the collapsing trachea? I am going to start the home diet asap as well as the supplements. I have to say, tonight he was coughing badly so I gave him ventolin, he coughed again 3 together and it s been an hour and he has been good since… I hope Chase and you are well, Thank you Connie.

My Eli is about 11, not sure of his exact age because I adopted him from a shelter. Diagnosed with CHF 7 months ago. Respiratory rate is 60 normal is around He was coughing and coughing for some reason and would cough up foam. I gave him another dose of his Lasix but after 2 hours took him to the hospital.

I am now struggling with the thought of even if he rebounds, when will be the next time. As CHF progresses it will be more trips to the vet hopefully not the emergency vet! Hard to not use those interchangeably…. When Precious started coughing non stop during the day, that was when I decided it was just too much for her. Thanks for your reply Sue, and you may be right — It might be time to let her go which breaks my heart, but I can tell she has trouble breathing some days.

She might have a day or so of not coughing most of the day, but then the next day she is right back to it. She is worse when she is around me because she is so attached to me and gets more excited when I talk to her, etc.

I just told my husband today that by the time her next refill is due on her meds. Thanks for your post, it lets us know we are not alone in this. I meant to check the box to notify me of follow up and forgot so that is the reason for this post! Gosh, thanks Allison for the report on your dog. I know that dog food that we buy is bad, I try to buy the organic — natural stuff — but you never know.

I am going to try making her food and the supplements you talked about. She is so sweet and gentle to everyone, she is a perfect little yorkie — she holds her ears up and she is very tiny Which I think might have been her downfall — being so small.

She is not doing well at all the last couple of days — coughing, etc. I am going back to your post and look at those cooking ideas and see what I can do. Glad your little doggie is doing well and congrats on going to medical school — sounds like you will be the type of Dr. Maybe you should become a vet. Thank you very much for your concern. Sue I read your article with tears in my eyes-I have a 13 year Boston that is my old girl and I love her so much.

It started with a cough and off to the vet we went. He tells me she has a heart murmur and put her on benzapril for the murmur and furosemide for the fluid build up-she has been on it for about a week now and the cough seems to be worse not better-I am off to the vet again tomo-I am going to have him xray her heart and some other things to cover my basis-I do know that this is the start of end which according to him is still 3 to 4 years but I feel so helpless and like I am not doing enough to make her comfortable-Thanks for this article I am glad I found it.

Hi Karen, I feel your pain I hope you can have a little longer cough-free time with your girl. I know every case is different but I think maybe your vet is stretching the facts a little when he says that the end is 3 or 4 years away. That would make her 17 years old which is usually the age that healthy small dogs live until. I have a chihuahua furkid called Akie.

He is 13 yrs old and he has been diagnosed with CHF stage 3 recently. Aparts of this he also having trachea collapsing which contribute to his coughing daily. I have been in and out to the vet quite often recently and nothing seems to ease his coughing..

His coughing is getting worst. Apparently, he is having Fortekor, Vetmedin and Furosemide for his heart enlargement. He has been diagnosed with heart enlargement 3 yrs ago, during that time he has been hospitalized but he recovered… I have been maintaining him by all the medication in correct timing each day, low sodium diet and no strenuous activities.

Apart of all the medications, he is also been taking Taurine, CoQ10, Hawthorne, Omega Fish Oil and etc supplements… I really have no idea where goes wrong recently… I just wish n hope that he will speedy recovery the soonest.

The vet just told me that if I would have him for another 6 to 12 months… He should consider that I am extremely happy and lucky…. Hi Miri, It sounds like your blaming yourself for him not getting better. Maybe if you believe in reincarnation like myself you can take comfort in knowing that he may possibly come back to you, if not in this life maybe the next. She is currently 15 and a half years old and acts like a puppy. She has been diagnosed with collapsing trachea and CHF.

I kicked into high gear as things unfolded and so Tatie has a cardiologist, a general practitioner, a holistic vet and an energy worker. She never needed any treatment for CT. None of these meds dosages have needed to be changed since her original diagnosis.

She sees her cardio three times a year and he does diagnostics every other visit blood work, xray and sonogram if needed. As I mentioned, Tatie sees a holistic vet as well. Every month or two she also receives acupuncture or chiropractic in addition to the cold laser treatments. I cook for her- beef and chicken boiled, a little broccoli and pasta, and no sodium.

She weighs about 8 lbs and has been on a wonderful plateau for some time now. She could not get out of the loop. It was awful…a HUGE sound, very guttural, coming from a little dog. I took her to her cardio the very next day. He thought either the bath excitement triggered her or perhaps she aspirated a little water. What a trade off. So she needs to eat to handle the effects of a drug that upsets her belly!

I should also mention that I get her meds compounded. And so I go forth- one step at a time with Tatie. Oh, and someone mentioned something I deal with as well: Thank you all so much for posting you own stories. Support is so key to dealing with these difficult conditions. He has had CHF for over 2 years starting with massive seizures. He is on pimobenden and after reading all these posts, I have added the Enepril also which I had here on hand from Fluppy. He takes 20 mg. Lasix per day but vet told me NOT to increase this dose since it can damage kidneys.

He coughed all night and wheezed. So sad to listen to. He got up and walked around many times, probably for water. He is on cough suppressents and also has had steroid injections. He also has Cushings Disease. Howdy is a medium sized Maltese and the largest one I have. He is just a happy go lucky kind of dog, never a problem. I am going to start cooking his food too.

I give him his meds in Liverwurst but now reading the posts about SALT, going to change that plan too…Looks like I will be making my own liverwurst too! Thanks for sharing all.

Hi All, I have read your stories and feel mine may be of use. My dog was a rescue dog from Spain a small honey coloured terrier. I homed her 7 years ago when she was roughly about 4 years old then.

I had her screened two years ago when we were coming back to the Uk and the vet diagnosed a heart murmur. She was well and happy up to last Easter Monday when her resting respiratory rate was 70, coughing on exertion and she was breathing using her abdominal muscles, very lethargic and mucous membranes not pink at all. I went to the emergency vet and she diagnosed a grossly enlarged heart and CHF.

After treating with diuretics and cardisure she was released after 3 hours. She made a slow recovery on these meds but this morning she vomited 3 times loosing bile and frothy fluid she then drank three full bowls of water and her breathing was 60 per minute with blueish mucous membranes.

I went to the vet who gave me the choice of aggressive treatment or euthanasia. I am now very sad but glad she did not have to live with this condition over a longtime. She was a much loved dog but I could not stay with her I did see her shortly afterwards and she was at peace.

It was a very tough decision but one which has to be taken bearing in mind the suffering of the dog. I hope if anyone reads this they will find some strength to make the hardest decision of all. Howdy is doing MUCH better. He is even lively and wagging! He is a maltese, Poor guy is bowlegged too! I bought him in Kansas from a home breeder.

His coughing has greatly reduced using the small amount of Hycodan twice a day with the Pimobenden, Lasix and Vetrol for his Cushings Disease. I boil his chicken with rice in the rice cooker with some garlic powder. I add doggie vitamins and he is just thrilled with his meal! God must have needed my precious baby boy because I had to send him to heaven the next day.

The vet does not know what was causing it, but he was bleeding internally somewhere, possibly from the Previcox he took daily for his deteriorated spine. I miss him every second but when you love someone so much, you have to let them go instead of suffering. Although he still eats and loves his treats.

I have had to make that dreaded decision many times and it gets no easier. I think we all can sympathize with what your dealing with.

I have to say my Precious coughed a lot also but all at once the cough got deeper and pretty much non-stop. Have you tried hydro codone to help suppress some of the coughing? She has been doing amazingly well thinks to the medications she has been on. The last two days the cough has increased. She has not been to the vet for a while, so maybe we will go for a visit this morning. The coughing makes sleep difficult for both of us. Wow, I have to say you are lucky that your dog has lived to her age of I hope she lives even longer.

So sorry to report that I lost my precious little girl May 7, I am having a terrible time adjusting to the loss. I miss her terribly. I am thinkful that she passed at home and in the arms of those who loved her. My dog has chf, she is She coughs more at nite. Started on lasiz for about a week, cough continued. Will take the Vets advice for heart medication and I guess return to the lasiz also.

She was on 40 mg a day, heart meds scare me because iam unsure of what might happen. She cough an gags. What medication did you have you dog on, that she lived to be amazingly 19 yrs old?? Iam beside my self of what to do. If not for the cough my dog Cindy is fine. Plays runs around eats like a horse. Please give me an insight into the medications or combination of meds. So I will be knowledgable when I talk to my Vet. We will be devastated to loose her.

What to save my dog, need to help her so bad, just breaks my heart to hear her cough so much. And i cant do anything. Thank you so very much. Mostly your vet will start with one or two drugs and as time goes by and her coughing gets worse as it usually does they add more drugs. I am going through a similar situation but my babies heart is enlarged quite a bit. You would think with the advances we have in medicine there was more they could do.

I have to say when I wrote this article I never dreamed it would connect with so many other pet lovers. My point Sammy was a rescue, but if I had to guess he is probably He has had a cough since about 10 years ago, I thought crushed trac. And almost like both nothing happened. I just hope he keeps ticking because although he intentionally posses everywhere in spite, I really adore him. Hi Jill, what you described are seizures. My Precious had the same thing and as time went on they did get worse.

Eventually the vet determined she had low thyroid a possible cause of seizures and was started on thyroid medicine. I wrote a post about seizures that might interest you or others who are not sure if their dog is having seizures.

Sammy is lucky to have you. Blessings to you both. Thanks so much for sharing your story. He was initially diagnosed back in November as stage 2, and in May stage 3. Two weeks after receiving the stage 3 diagnosis he quickly went to a stage 4 and the cardiologist began treatment with enalapril, furosemide, and vetmedin. He seems a little more energetic. I plan to start adding supplements such as the vitamin E, fish oils, etc that everyone has mentioned. At this time Carter was not showing all the symptoms of CHF such as coughing and wheezing, only lethargy and sleeping alot.

Hopefully his condition will improve and give him some extra time with me. Thanks for your story, I was wondering when he was diagnosed with the arrhythmia did he do any tests to possible determine what the possible cause could be?

I know arrhythmia can be the result of things like hypothyroidism. My Precious had low thyroid but surprisingly when looking at her you would never guess. She really had no outward appearances of low thyroid. I suspect your vet probably feels Carter has bigger problems to worry about but I just like to mention this for other readers.

Good luck, I hope Carter is with you a little longer he seems to young to have to leave you yet. It began with a cough, and when she did not get better with antibiotics they did an x-ray which showed an enlargement. From there we had an echo with the cardiologist and she did better until April of , when she ended up in critical condition and on oxygen for several days in the hospital.

Thank G-d they stabilized her and she has been on Lasix 25 mg three times a day, she is only 10 pounds, little thing, Vetmedin and Enalopril, until the Enalopril was stopped just two days to give her kidneys a break. A couple of months ago, April , she had stomach issues and the internist diagnosed her with a gall bladder mucoecele.

She needed her gall bladder out, but because of her heart failure this was not possible. So, added to the medication mix, are Denamarin and Ursodial for her gall bladder, liver and pancreas. Just two days ago, her blood levels for her kidneys were elevated so we stopped the Enalopril and are waiting for the tests for her kidneys to come back.

Thank you so much for this thread. We got through the loss together. Hi Laurel, Since your Mom has past away maybe if you just tell yourself that she wants to be with Sophia again that it will be easier to let her go.

You will be in our thoughts. Thank you Sue for your kind response and also for hosting this web page. I think it has provided not only valuable information but solace from and connection with others who understand. She took care of me until the end.

She normally shakes like crazy at the vet, but a tranquility and serenity took over, and it was her signal to me that yes, it was okay, it was time. I was so ambivalent thinking it was too early.

I have been reading all the posts, Allison I am very Interested in trying your treatment for chase. I have a rescue shitzu that was used for breeding only for seven years of her life from a puppy mill. We were allowed to get her because we have 2 dogs she could learn from , we have had her 5 years and she was supposed to be 7 when we got her. She is the most precious soulful little dog. Just in the past couple years has she caught on that like can be grand and she seems so happy.

Of course shortly after we got her we found out she had a grade 4 heart murmer and also had to have bladder stones surgically removed. She is very peppy, but has a nasty cough. I would like to get you amounts of these supplements, Molly weighs about 17 lbs. Your help would be appreciated. Oh I forgot to mention she has a trachea problem also that when she drinks she chokes and coughs on it. Well, I believe I have found the correct site. My little tiny Dusti is a 13yr.

Her cough is now turning into a high pitched sqeak where as before it was more of a hack. She sleeps on her right side with her little left paw extended every time. I guess tomorrow I will take her to the vet. Bless all of you for we are all basically going thru the same thing. Thank you for starting this post. It sounds like you found some comfort here, which I am glad. I hope everything goes well with Dusti at vet. Hi Sue, Took Dusti to the vet, he said her lungs sounded clearer.

Must be doing something right! Then, the next day the dreaded coughing again began. I held her in my arms promising my love for her was eternal.

The last week has been unbearable. Guess I will have to take her to Dr. How old is Deenie, is it possible you can get her a new companion? Maybe an older dog if she is not that energetic anymore.

Deenie is 13 also. We have an 8yr. Too busy running around trying to find Dusti. Who was her sister I try showing her more attention. We think she was maltreated as a puppy, we adopted her from the shelter when she was about a year old. I crush her meds with a pestle, then mix with peanut butter using a miniature spatula, then use my finger to spread it on the roof of her mouth.

She licks it down while I kiss her nose and tell her how much I love her. Thanks for sharing how you get yours to take her medicine. Maybe it can help others who have tried just about everything. A soft treat you can hide a pill in.

You can form them to any size. I use a syringe like a baby one, a pharmacy will just give u one if u ask Then it is so easy to administer. Depending on the meds, do not crush! Especially tramadol, that is nasty. I often hid between a spoon full of wet food. If she got a taste of even the residue from my hands, that was it, I had a fight on my hands.

She was also a dog with she wont eatpeanutbutter or butter, or cheese LOL. So, now I make tuna salad with low sodium tuna and that slides down. Another thing that works really well is a tiny piece of wonder bread with the meds squished between it. I would put on her wet food or dip in something meaty and that worked great for hiding the pill and hiding the taste. Good luck everyone, WHAT ever works, just some more suggestions. She has very few accidents. She started having some at first, now she can sleep all night without having one.

She is crated at night with a bowl of water and potty pads just in case. After reading these stories, I upped her Lasix just a wee bit this morning to a little over 3mg to see if that will help until I can get her back to the vet. I think her diet may have a lot to do with it, but she is extremely picky.

She wants to eat what the other dogs eat Beneful with milk bones for treats and chicken she loves chicken. And I tried the NF Kidney the vet suggested. It is hard to keep her out of the food I feed my other two dogs. I lost her mother last year to diabetes and renal failure. I guess this is not a good idea unless you can find a good food that your dog likes that is low sodium. I did add vitamins, digestive enzymes and probiotics.

I do agree CHF sucks. He is on Fortekor 2. We recently switched his food to Canine Life muffins and I have noticed a big difference with his cough. You can buy the muffins pre-made or you can buy the mix and make them yourself. You should look into it. You can order them or you can find them at some higher end pet stores.. Well, we all seem to be in the same boat, heart failure seems to have its course no matter what we do to try to make them more comfortable.

I have always fed my dogs people meat, dogs are exclusive meat eaters no matter what the vet or TV commercials say. We boil gizzards,hearts,livers, and all meats really including chicken, vitamin pill makes up for the rest. The coughing is getting worse, and always much worse when he gets excited, his appetite has improved lately eating things he never would before, starting to get a little leaking.

He has put on weight over the past three years, combination of illness, meds and no incantation to get exercise as before. I am going to increase his water pill to three times a day, it seems all we can do is make them comfortable till we can no longer do this for them. I failed to say that those dosages are twice daily for Daisy who is 4lb Chihuahua.

I also had extreme difficulty getting her to take her meds that were in pill form. Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore [26].

Le copertine erano fatte di legno e ricoperte di cuoio. Poiché la pergamena secca tende ad assumere la forma che aveva prima della trasformazione, i libri erano dotati di fermagli o cinghie. In quest'epoca si usavano differenti tipi di inchiostro , usualmente preparati con fuliggine e gomma, e più tardi anche con noce di galla e solfato ferroso.

Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature. A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus. Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta. Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolai , che produssero sia materiale religioso che profano [28].

Nelle prime biblioteche pubbliche i libri venivano spesso incatenati ad una libreria o scrivania per impedirne il furto.

Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Secondo la tradizione ebraica, il rotolo della Torah posto nella sinagoga deve esser scritto a mano su pergamena e quindi un libro stampato non è permesso, sebbene la congregazione possa usare libri di preghiere stampati e copie della Bibbia ebraica possano esser utilizzate per studio fuori della sinagoga.

Lo scriba ebraico sofer è altamente rispettato nell'ambito della comunità ebraica osservante. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamico , sviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia araba , miniatura e legatoria. Un certo numero di città del mondo islamico medievale furono sede di centri di produzione libraria e di mercati del libro. Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa".

In xilografia , un'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intarsiata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cina , durante la Dinastia Han prima del a.

Il libro più antico stampato con questo sistema è il Sutra del Diamante d. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. Questa invenzione gradualmente rese i libri meno laboriosi e meno costosi da produrre e più ampiamente disponibili. La stampa è una delle prime e più importanti forme di produzione in serie. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli.

Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsa , il leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenati , Biblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddisti , il primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo.

Potevano impostare più di 6. I secoli successivi al XV videro quindi un graduale sviluppo e miglioramento sia della stampa, sia delle condizioni di libertà di stampa , con un relativo rilassamento progressivo delle legislazioni restrittive di censura. A metà del XX secolo , la produzione libraria europea era salita a oltre Nella seconda metà del XX secolo la tecnologia informatica ha reso possibile con la diffusione di libri in formato elettronico, poi chiamati eBook o e-book da electronic book ,una rivoluzione in quanto come ha evidenziato il bibliofilo Nick Carr dalle caratterestiche della carta stampata ovvero: Nel [34] nasce il Progetto Gutenberg , lanciato da Michael S.

Hart , la prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. L'uso degli eBook al posto dei libri stampati si è tuttavia diffuso solo all'inizio del XXI secolo [35]. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Il foglio stampato viene poi opportunamente piegato per ottenere un fascicolo o segnatura di più pagine progressive. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume.

L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossura , era di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolo , mentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio. Nei libri moderni il formato è dato dall'altezza in centimetri, misurata al frontespizio , entro un minimo e un massimo convenzionalmente stabilito.

Il termine " tascabile " riferito al libro rappresenta un concetto commerciale e identifica libri economici stampati in sedicesimo, la cui diffusione, a partire dall'ultimo Ottocento ma soprattutto nella seconda metà del XX secolo , ha permesso un notevole calo dei prezzi.

Sostanzialmente - sia per il formato, sia per l'economicità - esso trova precedenti nella storia del libro anteriore alla stampa, già a partire dall'antichità il "libro che sta in una mano": Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnature , non sono mai contati come pagine. La loro utilità pratica è evidente in libri cartonati, o rilegati in tela, pelle o pergamena, dove aiutano a tenere unita la coperta rigida al blocco del libro.

Nel libro antico le sguardie, poste a protezione delle prime pagine stampate o manoscritte del testo, contribuiscono a tenerlo insieme alla copertina con spaghi o fettucce passanti nelle cuciture al dorso; nel libro moderno è invece la garza che unisce i fascicoli alla copertina. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio.

In origine era costituito dalla firma del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo che conteneva, spesso in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l'insegna dell'editore.

Di norma i fascicoli che costituiscono il libro vengono tenuti insieme da un involucro detto appunto '"coperta" o "copertina", è la parte più esterna del libro spesso rigida e illustrata.

Usata raramente fino a tutto il Settecento quando solitamente l'editore vendeva i libri slegati o applicava una semplice copertina di protezione, che veniva poi gettata dal legatore divenne molto popolare a partire dai primi anni dell' Ottocento , forse su impulso degli stampatori Brasseur di Parigi [38]. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto.

I piatti hanno dimensioni leggermente più ampie rispetto al corpo del volume. La parte che sporge oltre il margine dei fogli è chiamata unghiatura , o unghia o cassa. Essa è anche realizzata nelle segnature fogli piegati per facilitare la raccolta o l'assemblaggio di un opuscolo. Nel libro moderno la coperta è costituita dai due piatti e da un "dorso", per le cosiddette copertine rigide "legature a cartella" o "Bradel" o "cartonato" , oppure da un cartoncino più o meno spesso che, opportunamente piegato lungo la linea del dorso, abbraccia il blocco delle carte.

In quest'ultimo caso si parla di brossura e l'unghiatura è assente. Nata con funzioni prettamente pratiche quali la protezione del blocco delle carte e il permetterne la consultabilità, la coperta assume nel tempo funzioni e significati diversi, non ultimo quello estetico e rappresentativo.

Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale. Con la meccanizzazione e la diffusione dell'industria tipografica vengono introdotti altri tipi di legature e coperte, più economiche e adatte alle lavorazioni automatiche. Il cartonato si diffonde nel XIX secolo, preferito per economicità, robustezza e resa del colore.

Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Modernamente la brossura è un sistema di legatura in cui i fascicoli o segnature vengono fresate dal lato del dorso e i fogli sciolti vengono incollati a una striscia di tela o plastica sempre al dorso cosiddetta "brossura fresata".

Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra. Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore. La "prima di copertina" o "copertina anteriore" o "piatto superiore" è la prima faccia della copertina di un libro.

Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. La "quarta di copertina" o "copertina posteriore" o "piatto inferiore" è l'ultima faccia della copertina, usata oggi a scopo promozionale. Solitamente riporta notizie sull'opera e sull'autore, nonché il codice ISBN e il prezzo del volume se non è indicato nel risvolto di copertina.

I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". Ha di solito la funzione di reclamizzare il libro, per cui riporta i dati essenziali dell'opera ed è sempre a colori ed illustrata. La sovracopertina è stampata, nella maggior parte dei casi, solo sull'esterno. I tre margini esterni del libro, cioè la superficie presentata dai fogli in un volume chiuso, si chiamano "tagli".

Dal punto di vista industriale, il taglio di testa è, con la cucitura, il lato più importante di un libro in quanto determina il registro frontale della macchina da stampa. I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo. Tipped containers can cause servere scalding and burns. Do not feed the cooled drippings, it upsets pet's digestive systems.

Do not feed even a taste of left over turkey and stuffing-onions can lead to anenia in dogs and fatty rich foods can cause pancreatitis. Poulty bones are dangerous, splintered bones cause pain and sometimes death.

Artifical snow and snow flock also has low toxicity. Tinsel is not toxic, but if ingested, intestinal obstruction and choking are potential problems. Ribbons tied around pets necks can tighted resulting in chocking or they can hang themselves if the ribbon is caught on an object. The frightening noise and the danger of exploding fireworks are hazardous to your pet. Christmas greens such as balsam, juniper, ceder, pine and fir - all parts have a low level of toxicity; hibiscus may cause vomiting or bloodly diarrhea if ingested.

Poinsettias, leaves and stems low in toxicity. It is wise to keep plants out of reach of children and pets. You need time, peace and quiet to spend with your new life-time commitment. Some symptoms can also take as much as 8 hours to show up.

Be aware of household product. Keep all candies out of reach. Clear signs are limping but watch for stiffeness or arched backs. Dogs in pain often lay only flat on their sides rather than curled up in their bed.

Unexpected accidents in the house may mean it is very painful to get up from lying down or painful to walk towards the door or their dish. Spaying or neutering, feeding quality dog food, regular Vet checks, avoid cigeratte smoke, dangerous houshold cleaners and fumes are ways to help prevent Cancer in dogs.

Also known as BSD black skin disease. It is a condition which affects a number of Nordic breeds resulting in hair loss. This condition to date has not be found to be under control but research is being done to help prevent this problem.

BSD is not painful to the dog. You do not have to have the dog put down. They are still happy, playful, loving, active. They do not die from this condition. Understanding people have given them loving homes and their dogs sport many a fine outfit to wear when out with their owners. We are doing our best to produce correct coats in our Pomeranians. Chia seeds are gluten free and nourishes skin from the inside out, because of its high levels of Omega-3 help combat chronice skin inflammation.

Mix-leave for 10 minutes and serve. You can store in the Frig. Eggs contain the most bioavailable protein. Gives hair strength and luster. Eggs contain lutein which helps keep skin hydrated and helps in tissue repair. The zinc in eggs supports skin health and shiny hair.

Egg yolks are a valuable source of biotin, a B vitaminsometimes referred to as vitamin H or B7 which helps promote healthy skin and coats: Eggs contain vitamin A which helps repair cell damage and keeps skin healthy and coats glowing. Organic Unsweetened COCONUT or coconut chips sprinkled on their food contains medium-chain saturated fats which are transformed into energy and contain special properties that act as anti-inflammatory agents to decrease bacterial growth, irritation and inflammation in the body.

Eating raw coconut can reduce the severity of bacterial and inflammatory skin conditions. Nutrients include calcium, phosphorus,magnesium, posassioum, iron, zinc, copper vitamins A B6, B12, C, D, and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and biotin. Contains antioxidant proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and ellagic acid. Anthocyanins have an anti-inflammatory action, and can help lessen allergic reactions in dogs.. Contains vitamin A and beta-carotene.

Sweet potatoes also contain calcium, iron, folate, potassium, copper and thiamine. The vitamin C in sweet potoes helps accelerate healing and support collagen production. Requires no preparation, lasts a long time and needs no special storage requirements. Does not contain caffeine and theobromine found in chocolate so it is perfectly safe for dogs.

Its vitamin E supports skin health and it has antiviral and antibacterial properties. Carob contains no oxalic acid, so it does not interfere with calcium absorption. OATS are a strength giving cereal, low in starch and high in mineral content, especially potassium and phosphorus. Oats contain calcium, magnesium, B vitamins and iron. They support healthy skin and hair by supporting your dog's gastrointestinal system and helping remove toxins from the body.

Walk in early morning and eve. If your dog slows down, let them rest in a shaded area. Cool a dog by pouring water on their neck, pads of feet and belly before continuing the walk. Cool wet cloths on paws and around the head can help cool down a dog. Excessive panting, darker or bright red tongue and gums, sticky or dry tongue and gums.

Staggering, seizures, bloodly diarrhea or vomiting and rapid heart beat. I am not a Veterinarian and this is not intended as a substitute for veterinary care. Dogs die regularly from poorly handled heat problems. So cooling the back of the head is a critical area. Your five point cooling chart is back of the head, underbelly, inside of the front legs, especially the armpit; inside of the hind legs, especially the groin-and if more severe, spine and rectum. Spraying or wiping down the belly and inside of the legs is important.

Dilute if you use around the rectum. Avoid extremes of temperature if you have to cool an overheated dog these can cause shock and catapult a dog into crises.

Soaking down a heavy coated dog can put them into heat crises. If that coat mats down-especially in HUMID areas, you have just created a thick matted blanket trapping heat in. If you don't have a doggy forced air dryer, put your hair dryer on cold and blow out especially the area all along the spine and back of the head.

Keep your dog groomed and get the old undercoat out for the dogs ability to cool.