Main features of circulatory systems
An iodine residual of 0. In addition to the main systemic heart, many species have accessory booster hearts at critical points in the circulatory system. The pump is instantaneous growth… It is the immediate invigoration of dormant muscle fibers. Fluid movement through the mantle cavity normally depends on muscular pumping through inhalant and exhalant siphons. The stoichiometry of the citric acid cycle elucidates why they cannot be used for de novo synthesis of glucose. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates. Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment".
Where does the pentose phosphate pathway occur?
These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food. The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity. Dehydration and over-hydration - too little and too much water, respectively - can have harmful consequences.
Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia , i. Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. For distilled spirits , a standard serving in the United States is 1. A 5 ounce serving of wine contains to calories.
A 12 ounce serving of beer contains 95 to calories. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods because other than calories, these contribute no essential nutrients. The micronutrients are minerals , vitamins , and others. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms,  other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.
The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals , which often occur as ions in the body. Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells.
Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter. Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals". Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes.
Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. Vitamins are essential nutrients,  necessary in the diet for good health.
Vitamin D is an exception, as it can be synthesized in the skin in the presence of UVB radiation , and many animal species can synthesize vitamin C.
Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre , scurvy , osteoporosis , impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health , among many others. Phytochemicals such as polyphenols are compounds produced naturally in plants phyto means "plant" in Greek.
In general, the term is used to refer to compounds which do not appear to be nutritionally essential and yet may have positive impacts on health. To date, there is no conclusive evidence in humans that polyphenols or other non-nutrient compounds from plants have health benefit effects.
While initial studies sought to reveal if nutrient antioxidant supplements might promote health, one meta-analysis concluded that supplementation with vitamins A and E and beta-carotene did not convey any benefits and may in fact increase risk of death.
Vitamin C and selenium supplements did not impact mortality rate. Health effects of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as polyphenols were not assessed in this review. Animal intestines contain a large population of gut flora. In humans, the four dominant phyla are Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , Actinobacteria , and Proteobacteria.
Bacteria in the large intestine perform many important functions for humans, including breaking down and aiding in the absorption of fermentable fiber, stimulating cell growth, repressing the growth of harmful bacteria, training the immune system to respond only to pathogens, producing vitamin B 12 , and defending against some infectious diseases. There is not yet a scientific consensus as to health benefits accruing from probiotics or prebiotics.
Carnivore and herbivore diets are contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions vary for their particular foods. Many herbivores rely on bacterial fermentation to create digestible nutrients from indigestible plant cellulose, while obligate carnivores must eat animal meats to obtain certain vitamins or nutrients their bodies cannot otherwise synthesize.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. Some elements are directly involved in plant metabolism.
However, this principle does not account for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clear positive effects on plant growth.
A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant cannot complete its full life cycle without it.
There are 16 essential plant soil nutrients, besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in air, and hydrogen , which is obtained from water. Plants uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the air consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen through their leaves. Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of photosynthesis.
Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. These hydrogen ions displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake by the root.
In the leaves, stomata open to take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. The carbon dioxide molecules are used as the carbon source in photosynthesis. Although nitrogen is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Most plants, therefore, require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to biologically usable forms in the soil by bacteria.
Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone. Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa. Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program.
Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs. Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups.
Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government. Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U. The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education.
It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.
Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families. It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise.
Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging. In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments.
In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes. Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life.
In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs  are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan.
They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs.
These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians. This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health. The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it.
Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills. For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA.
The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment  further delineating priorities for the region.
Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living.
The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented  and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting. More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes. Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism.
In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge. The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.
Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death.
Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis ,  and was popularized by Michael Pollan.
Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today.
ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems. ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced.
High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information. Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions.
Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G. Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy.
Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.
Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs.
Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol.
The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. It has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake, and reducing glycemic load see below all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals and thereby lower their blood sugar level , in those with type 2 diabetes.
In addition, reduced leptin signaling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may possess the potential to overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain homeostasis , the recent explosive introduction of high glycemic index and processed foods into the human diet may possess the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. The relatively recent increased consumption of sugar has been linked to the rise of some afflictions such as diabetes, obesity, and more recently heart disease. Increased consumption of sugar has been tied to these three, among others. In the same time span that obesity doubled, diabetes numbers quadrupled in America.
Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Elevated amounts of Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, is the primary factor in heart disease. In order to avoid all the dangers of sugar, moderate consumption is paramount. Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature.
Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled. These latter technologies include pasteurisation , autoclavation , drying , salting , and separation of various components, all of which appearing to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation heating techniques have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection.
But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Modern separation techniques such as milling , centrifugation , and pressing have enabled concentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices, and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Inevitably, such large-scale concentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others.
Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet-to-be-discovered substances.
In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice. Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine , causing beri-beri.
Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 19th century in the United States. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease.
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Iodine is a gatekeeper of mammary gland integrity. Though few know it swollen ovaries is a condition analogous to goiter, when the thyroid swells in response to iodine deficiency. Goiters often also result in a hormonal imbalance leading to hypothyroidism. In the case of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOS the starvation of the ovaries causes them to become cystic, swollen and eventually unable to regulate the synthesis of their hormones leading to imbalances and infertility.
Russian studies when investigating Fibrocystic breast disease also discovered that the greater the iodine deficiency the greater the number of cysts in the ovaries. Since , the iodine concentration in the ovary has been known to be higher than in every other organ except the thyroid. Browstein has found in his research with high doses of iodine that cysts on the ovaries became smaller and began to disappear. He also found that libido in women and men increased.
In sufficient amounts iodine can not only adjust a dysfunctional thyroid, it can assist with a host of glandular imbalances as well as a wide assortment of internal as well as external bacteria, fungi, and virus's. Iodine has many non-endocrine biologic effects, including the role it plays in the physiology of the inflammatory response. Iodides increase the movement of granulocytes into areas of inflammation and improve the phagocytosis of bacteria by granulocytes and the ability of granulocytes to kill bacteria [xv].
Robert Rowen informs that iodine reduces the activity of lipoprotein a. When elevated, this protein can lead to excessive blood clotting and vascular disease. Doses up to six times the RDA have been used safely for months to combat the excessive mucous in chronic lung diseases. She recovered within three weeks. When he discovered his mistake, he switched to digitalis, and her symptoms came back. The occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent.
The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism.
A study done with 42 patients with cardiovascular disease were divided into 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary dysfunction and arrhythmia. When urine concentrations were tested the most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients and elevation in lipid metabolism cholesterol, triglyceride associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia.
The researchers concluded that iodine supplementation might prevent the worsening effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease. Iodine made its leap into medical history when a Swiss physician, Dr Jean François Condet announced that iodine could reduce goiters enlarged thyroids. At this moment, modern medical science was born because for the first time we have a specific disorder that is relieved by a specific treatment.
It is most ironic to note that the very first step of allopathic medicine was into nutritional not chemical medicine with iodine being a common mineral from the sea. The required daily amount RDA of iodine is just enough to keep our thyroids from expanding, like the RDA of vitamin C today which is just enough to keep us free of scurvy, but not enough to prevent pre scurvy syndromes or Cardiovascular Disease.
She experienced a tremendous increase in energy, endurance, well being, and memory. At six months all her skin peeled off and was replaced by new, younger-looking skin. She was flabbergasted and amazed at her new appearance. Breast tissue has an affinity for iodine. Iodine deficiency causes fibrocystic breast disease with nodules, cyst enlargement, pain and scar tissue.
Abraham, Flechas and Brownstein tested more than 4, patients taking iodine in daily doses ranging from Most physicians and surgeons view iodine from a narrow perspective and this is one of the greatest tragedies of allopathic medicine. Most health officials are chemical terrorists in disguise as they ignore the toxic buildup going on in the general population and they have no intention of informing them what they can do about it.
Mercury is a perfect case in point. Mercury is toxic from whatever source it arrives into our bodies but doctors and dentists still insist on using it, which puts us solidly in the modern age of medical and dental barbarism. We like to think we are an advanced race of intelligent beings but lo and behold we find what are supposed to be the best and most intelligent of us poisoning young and old alike with mercury.
It is beyond criminality what they are doing and what they are denying. George Flechas relates that many of his diabetic patients need lowering of insulin dosage and diabetic drugs after repletion of iodine deficiency and others have observed the same thing. Something is dangling itself before our very eyes, a medical mystery that will enlighten us about our ignorance about how important minerals are for life.
Both general and medical scientists can explain why diabetics and others benefit so greatly from heavy iodine supplementation, but will allopathic medical officials listen? Iodine is utilized by every hormone receptor in the body. This, in part, would already start to explain why Dr. Flechas sees such dramatic results with his diabetic patients. Why would many people who take iodine report that they have a greater sense of well-being, increased energy, and a lifting of brain fog?
They feel warmer in cold environments, need somewhat less sleep, improved skin complexion, and have more regular bowel movements. The most obvious answer is that iodine is a trace mineral used to synthesize hormones and is a mineral that is very important to how hormones function at the hormone receptor sites. Thyroxin and Triiodo-thyronine stimulates and maintains normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature.
The oral temperature before getting out of bed in the morning should be Mid-afternoon the temperature should be Norman Shealy, who suggests iodine dosages of micrograms daily 4 to 6 weeks. If basal temperature comes to normal, lower iodine dosage to mcg daily.
Iodine's ability to revive hormonal sensitivity seems to significantly improve insulin sensitivity. She was then started on insulin during her hospitalization and was instructed on the use of a home glucometer. She was to use her glucometer two times per day. Two weeks later on her return office visit for a checkup of her insulin dependent diabetes she was informed that during her hospital physical examination she was noted to have FBD. She was recommended to start on 50 mg of iodine 4 tablets at that time.
One week later she called us requesting to lower the level of insulin due to having problems with hypoglycemia. She was told to continue to drop her insulin levels as long as she was experiencing hypoglycemia and to monitor her blood sugars carefully with her glucometer.
Four weeks later during an office visit her glucometer was downloaded to my office computer, which showed her to have an average random blood sugar of I praised the patient for her diligent efforts to control her diet and her good work at keeping her sugars under control with the insulin.
She then informed me that she had come off her insulin three weeks earlier and had not been taking any medications to lower her blood sugar. When asked what she felt the big change was, she felt that her diabetes was under better control due to the use of iodine.
Increased metabolic rate increases the need for iodine. If a person is not getting enough iodine and are on thyroid meds they will become more deficient. Fletchas [xviii] reported that two years later and 70 pounds lighter this above patient continues to have excellent glucose control on iodine 50 mg per day.
The range of daily iodine intake was from 50 mg to mg per day. All diabetic patients were able to lower the total amount of medications necessary to control their diabetes. A lack of iodine in the skin manifests as very dry skin and skin that does not sweat when an individual becomes hot.
Everyone agrees that a lack of iodine in the diet causes a spectrum of disorders that includes, in increasing order of severity, goiter and hypothyroidism, mental retardation, and cretinism severe mental retardation accompanied by physical deformities.
Iodine deficient humans, like endemic cretins, suffer physical, neurological, mental, immune and reproductive diseases. Iodine is important in the proper function of the nervous system and Dr. Iodine deficiency is a major cause of under-functioning intellect [xx].
Recent research shows iodine deficiency is felt to be the source of attention deficit disorder in children. We certainly will find science to create a foundation for the use of iodine before, during and after pregnancy.
Deficiency of iodine seems to cause more damage in developing embryos and in fact, in pregnant women iodine deficiency causes abortions and stillborns [xxi].
It is not cretinism alone that holds risks from deficiency, but the very survival of the infant itself. Adequate iodine may also provide protection from infection and vaccine damage. In a study done on infants between the ages of 6 weeks and six months, in an iodine deficient area, it was shown that with the addition of mg of iodine oil to the diet of newborns, that the death rate of infants was markedly lower than for those without any supplementation.
Magnesium and iodine deficiencies are the causes of autoimmune thyroiditis, not excess iodide. I odine deficiency poses significant additional reproductive risks, including overt hypothyroidism and infertility. Hypothyroidism causes anovulation, infertility, and gestational hypertension.
Iodine contributes to the formation of testosterone. In women this supports healthy sex drive. In men, testosterone is vital to function. Iodine is my drug of choice. I use it for everything. I raise my kids and now my grandkids on iodine.