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These are all facts. Retrieved 20 May March 24, 8: Economic development in Mumbai brought a growth in population caused mainly by the migration of laborers from other regions of the country. A team project is involved necessitating significant team member interaction outside of class.

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The ability to produce and grow food for oneself has also been reported to improve levels of self-esteem or of self-efficacy. Community and residential gardening, as well as small-scale farming, save household food dollars. They promote nutrition and free cash for non-garden foods and other items. This allows families to generate larger incomes selling to local grocers or to local outdoor markets while supplying their household with the proper nutrition of fresh and nutritional products.

Some community urban farms can be quite efficient and help women find work, who in some cases are marginalized from finding employment in the formal economy. As most UA activities are conducted on vacant municipal land, there have been raising concerns about the allocation of land and property rights.

The IDRC and the FAO have published the Guidelines for Municipal Policymaking on Urban Agriculture, and are working with municipal governments to create successful policy measures that can be incorporated in urban planning. Over a third of U. US households participating in community gardening has also tripled from 1 to 3 million in that time frame.

Urban agriculture provides unique opportunities to bridge diverse communities together. In addition, it provides opportunities for health care providers to interact with their patients. Thus, making each community garden a hub that is reflective of the community.

The current industrial agriculture system is accountable for high energy costs for the transportation of foodstuffs. Pirog found that traditional, non-local, food distribution system used 4 to 17 times more fuel and emitted 5 to 17 times more CO 2 than the local and regional transport.

Similarly, in a study by Marc Xuereb and Region of Waterloo Public Health, they estimated that switching to locally grown food could save transport-related emissions equivalent to nearly 50, metric tons of CO 2 , or the equivalent of taking 16, cars off the road.

Also, these areas can act as carbon sinks [37] offsetting some of the carbon accumulation that is innate to urban areas, where pavement and buildings outnumber plants. Plants absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2 and release breathable oxygen O 2 through photosynthesis.

The process of Carbon Sequestration can be further improved by combining other agriculture techniques to increase removal from the atmosphere and prevent the release of CO 2 during harvest time. However, this process relies heavily on the types of plants selected and the methodology of farming.

The reduction in ozone and other particulate matter can benefit human health. According to the article, only one square meter of green roof is needed to offset the annual particulate matter emissions of a car. Vacant urban lots are often victim to illegal dumping of hazardous chemicals and other wastes. The implementation of urban agriculture in these vacant lots can be a cost-effective method for removing these chemicals.

In the process known as Phytoremediation , plants and the associated microorganisms are selected for their chemical ability to degrade, absorb, convert to an inert form, and remove toxins from the soil. Mercury and lead inorganic compounds e. Arsenic and Uranium , and organic compounds e. Phytoremeditation is both an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and energy-efficient measure to reduce pollution.

Urban agriculture as a method to mediate chemical pollution can be effective in preventing the spread of these chemicals into the surrounding environment. Other methods of remediation often disturb the soil and force the chemicals contained within it into the air or water. Plants can be used as a method to remove chemicals and also to hold the soil and prevent erosion of contaminated soil decreasing the spread of pollutants and the hazard presented by these lots.

One way of identifying soil contamination is through using already well-established plants as bioindicators of soil health. Using well-studied plants is important because there has already been substantial bodies of work to test them in various conditions, so responses can be verified with certainty.

Such plants are also valuable because they are genetically identical as crops as opposed to natural variants of the same species. Typically urban soil has had the topsoil stripped away and has led to soil with low aeration, porosity, and drainage.

Typical measures of soil health are microbial biomass and activity, enzymes, soil organic matter SOM , total nitrogen, available nutrients, porosity, aggregate stability, and compaction.

A new measurement is active carbon AC , which is the most usable portoin of the total organic carbon TOC in the soil. This contributes greatly to the functionality of the soil food web. Using common crops, which are generally well-studied, as bioindicators an be used to effectively test the quality of an urban farming plot before beginning planting.

Large amounts of noise pollution not only lead to lower property values and high frustration, they can be damaging to human hearing and health. They cite examples of the detriment of continual noise on humans to include: Daily intake of a variety of fruits and vegetables is linked to a decreased risk of chronic diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.

Urban agriculture is associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables [49] which decreases risk for disease and can be a cost-effective way to provide citizens with quality, fresh produce in urban settings. A Flint, Michigan study found that those participating in community gardens consumed fruits and vegetables 1. An Idaho study reported a positive association between school gardens and increased intake of fruit, vegetables, vitamin A, vitamin C and fiber among sixth graders.

Urban agriculture also provides quality nutrition for low-income households. The supplemental nutrition program Women, Infants and Children WIC as well as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SNAP have partnered with several urban gardens nationwide to improve the accessibility to produce in exchange for a few hours of volunteer gardening work.

Urban farming has been shown to increase health outcomes. Gardeners consume twice as much fruit and vegetables than non-gardeners. Levels of physical activity are also positively associated with urban farming. These results are seen indirectly and can be supported by the social involvement in an individual's community as a member of the community farm. This social involvement helped raised the aesthetic appeal of the neighborhood, boosting the motivation or efficacy of the community as a whole.

This increased efficacy was shown to increase neighborhood attachment. Therefore, the positive health outcomes of urban farming can be explained in part due to the interpersonal sand social factors that boost health. Focusing on improving the aesthetics and community relationships and not only on the plant yield, is the best way to maximize the positive effect of urban farms on a neighborhood.

Using high-density urban farming, as for instance with vertical farms or stacked greenhouses, many environmental benefits can be achieved on a citywide scale that would be impossible otherwise. These systems do not only provide food, but also produce potable water from waste water, and can recycle organic waste back to energy and nutrients. A report by the USDA, determined that "Evidence is both abundant and robust enough for us to conclude that Americans living in low-income and minority areas tend to have poor access to healthy food", and that the "structural inequalities" in these neighborhoods "contribute to inequalities in diet and diet-related outcomes".

Not only can urban agriculture provide healthy, fresh food options, but also can contribute to a sense of community, aesthetic improvement, crime reduction, minority empowerment and autonomy, and even preserve culture through the use of farming methods and heirloom seeds preserved from areas of origin. Urban agriculture may advance environmental justice and food justice for communities living in food deserts. When urban agriculture leads to locally grown fresh produce sold at affordable prices in food deserts, access to healthy food is not just available for those who live in wealthy areas, thereby leading to greater equity in rich and poor neighborhoods.

Improved access to food through urban agriculture can also help alleviate psychosocial stresses in poor communities. Community members engaged in urban agriculture improve local knowledge about healthy ways to fulfill dietary needs. Urban agriculture can also better the mental health of community members.

Buying and selling quality products to local producers and consumers allows community members to support one another, which may reduce stress. Thus, urban agriculture can help improve conditions in poor communities, where residents experience higher levels of stress due to a perceived lack of control over the quality of their lives. Urban agriculture may improve the livability and built environment in communities that lack supermarkets and other infrastructure due to the presence of high unemployment caused by deindustrialization.

Urban farmers who follow sustainable agriculture methods can not only help to build local food system infrastructure, but can also contribute to improving local air, and water and soil quality.

Sustainable urban agriculture can also promote worker protection and consumer rights. However, urban agriculture can also present urban growers with health risks if the soil used for urban farming is contaminated. Although local produce is often believed to be clean and healthy, many urban farmers ranging from New York urban farmer Frank Meushke [68] to Presidential First Lady Michelle Obama [69] have found their products contained high levels of lead , due to soil contamination , which is harmful to human health when consumed.

The soil contaminated with high lead levels often originates from old house paint which contained lead, vehicle exhaust , or atmospheric deposition. Without proper education on the risks of urban farming and safe practices, urban consumers of urban agricultural produce may face additional health-related issues [64].

Creating a community-based infrastructure for urban agriculture means establishing local systems to grow and process food and transfer it from farmer producer to consumer.

To facilitate food production, cities have established community-based farming projects. Some projects have collectively tended community farms on common land , much like that of eighteenth-century Boston Common. Other community garden projects use the allotment garden model, in which gardeners care for individual plots in a larger gardening area, often sharing a tool shed and other amenities. Independent urban gardeners also grow food in individual yards and on roofs.

Garden sharing projects seek to pair producers with the land, typically, residential yard space. Roof gardens allow for urban dwellers to maintain green spaces in the city without having to set aside a tract of undeveloped land. Rooftop farms allow otherwise unused industrial roofspace to be used productively, creating work and profit. Food processing on a community level has been accommodated by centralizing resources in community tool sheds and processing facilities for farmers to share.

Different areas of the city have tool banks where resources like tools, compost , mulch, tomato stakes, seeds, and education can be shared and distributed with the gardeners in that cluster. Detroit's Garden Resource Program Collaborative also strengthens their gardening community by providing to their member's transplants; education on gardening, policy, and food issues; and by building connectivity between gardeners through workgroups, potlucks, tours, field trips, and cluster workdays.

In Brazil, "Cities Without Hunger" has generated a public policy for the reconstruction of abandoned areas with food production and has improved the green areas of the community. Farmers' markets , such as the farmers' market in Los Angeles , provide a common land where farmers can sell their product to consumers.

Large cities tend to open their farmer's markets on the weekends and one day in the middle of the week. However, to create a consumer dependency on urban agriculture and to introduce local food production as a sustainable career for farmers, markets would have to be open regularly.

For example, the Los Angeles Farmers' Market is open seven days a week and has linked several local grocers together to provide different food products. The market's central location in downtown Los Angeles provides the perfect interaction for a diverse group of sellers to access their consumers.

In Queensland many people have started a trend of urban farming both utilizing Aquaponics and self-watering containers. In Egypt, development of rooftop gardens began in the s. In the early s at Ain Shams University , a group of agriculture professors developed an initiative focused on growing organic vegetables to suit densely populated cities of Egypt. The initiative was applied on a small scale; until it was officially adopted in , by the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc , Cuba faced severe shortages of fuel and agrochemical inputs.

These products had previously been imported from the Soviet Union in exchange for Cuban sugar. As a result, Cubans experienced an acute food crisis in the early s, which in part was met with a popular movement of urban agriculture.

Urban farmers employed — and still employ — agroecological techniques, allowing food production to take place largely without petroleum-based inputs.

In , more than , Cubans worked in the expanding urban agriculture sector. Economic development in Mumbai brought a growth in population caused mainly by the migration of laborers from other regions of the country. The number of residents in the city increased more than twelve times in the last century. In this scenario, urban agriculture seems unlikely to be put into practice since it must compete with real estate developers for the access and use of vacant lots.

Alternative farming methods have emerged as a response to the scarcity of land, water, and economic resources employed in UPA. Doshi's city garden methods are revolutionary for being appropriate to apply in reduced spaces as terraces and balconies, even on civil construction walls, and for not requiring big investments in capital or long hours of work.

His farming practice is purely organic and is mainly directed to domestic consumption. His gardening tools are composed of materials available in the local environment: The containers and bags open at both ends are filled with the sugarcane stalks, compost, and garden soil, which make possible the use of a minimal quantity of water is compared to open fields. Doshi states that solar energy can replace soil in cities. He also recommends the idea of chain planning, or growing plants in intervals and in small quantities rather than at once and in large amounts.

The concept of city farming developed by Dr. Doshi consumes the entire household's organic waste. He subsequently makes the household self-sufficient in the provision of food: The main objectives of a pilot project at city farm at Rosary High School, Dockyard Road, were to promote economic support for street children, beautify the city landscape, supply locally produced organic food to urban dwellers mainly those residing in slums , and to manage organic waste in a sustainable city.

The project was conducted in the Rosary School, in Mumbai, with the participation of street children during The participants were trained in urban farming techniques.

The farm produced vegetables, fruits, and flowers. The idea has spread the concept of city farm to other schools in the city. The Mumbai Port Trust MBPT central kitchen distributes food to approximately 3, employees daily, generating important amounts of organic disposal.

A terrace garden created by the staff recycles ninety percent of this waste in the production of vegetables and fruits. The activity of city farming was started initially to dispose of kitchen organic waste in an eco-friendly way.

Staff members, after their daily work in the kitchen, tend the garden, which has about plants. While the goals of the NGO are important in a global context, the community goals are being met through the work of forming the urban gardens themselves. In this sense, the creation, implementation, and maintenance of urban gardens are highly determined by the desires of the communities involved.

However, the criteria by which TEI measured their success illustrates the scope of benefits to a community which practices urban agriculture.

TEI's success indicators were:. Recently, with relative food security in China, periurban agriculture has led to improvements in the quality of the food available, as opposed to quantity.

One of the more recent experiments in urban agriculture is the Modern Agricultural Science Demonstration Park in Xiaotangshan. Traditionally, Chinese cities have been known to mix agricultural activities within the urban setting. Asea is based chemically on scientific discoveries made more than 16 years ago by a group of medical professionals, engineers and researchers.

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Stazione di Entomologia Agraria di Firenze per gli anni Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, Roma, n. Relazioni intorno ai lavori della R. Contribution to the knowledge of bark-beetles Scolytidae in Slovenia. Zbornik Gozdarstva in Lesarstva, No. The role of insect pests in the mass mortality of silver fir. Gorsko Stopanstvo, 45 4: Insect pests and their role in the decline and dying of silver fir Abies alba in Bulgaria.

Nauka za Gorata, 31 3: Prinos keme izucivane koroedite, Ipidae Insecta, Coleoptera Bulgarii. Biology of ipid bark-beetles damaging Spruce and Fir in the Carpathians. Der Tannenborkenkfer und seine Bekampfung. A new microsporidian from the bark beetle Pityokteines curvidens Germar Coleoptera, Scolytidae in Czechoslovakia. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America Coleoptera: Scolytidae , a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae Coleoptera.

A catalog of Scolytydae and Platypodidae Coleoptera , part I: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs N. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae Coleoptera , Part 2: Taxonomic Index Volume A.

Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, Role of cambio- and xylophagous insects in the process of decline of silver fir stands affected by industrial air pollution in Ojcow National Park.

Acta Agraria et Silvestria. Scolytidae found in the Golija range. Fauna bronku prostejorskeho okresn Czech. Vestnik Klubu prirodovedeckho, Prostejove, One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.

More information about modern web browsers can be found at http: Datasheet Pityokteines curvidens fir engraver beetle. Don't need the entire report? Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Title Larvae Caption P. Title Pupa Caption P. Title Teneral male Caption P. Title Gallery pattern Caption Typical gallery pattern of P.

Title Gallery system Caption System of galleries excavated by one male and three females of P. Title Gallery system Caption System of galleries excavated by one male and four females of P. Title Gallery pattern Caption Typical gallery pattern of Pityokteines vorontzovi.

Vallombrosa Forest, Florence, Italy. Borkenkaefer, Krummzaehniger Tannen-; krummzähniger tannenborkenkäfer Italy: Taxonomic Tree Top of page Domain: Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page Scolytidae belong to the superfamily Curculionoidea in the order Coleoptera and include about known species divided into two subfamilies, 25 tribes and genera Wood, The Holarctic genus Pityokteines contains nine species, six of them from the Nearctic and the other three from the Palaearctic.

Most of them feed on Abies, although one North American species, P. Pityokteines curvidens was described by Germar in as Tomicus curvidens.

The generic designation Pityokteines dates from Fuchs, and P. Description Top of page Eggs The eggs are whitish and translucent, with a thin shiny chorion. Larvae Larvae are, apodous, with a whitish body and dark head. The mature larvae reach about 4 mm in length see Pictures.

Pupa Pupae are of the exarate type, whitish and bright, bearing two caudal spines. They can reach 3. No morphological studies of pupae are known. Adults Adults are evenly blackish with antennae and legs yellowish-brown and with marked sexual dimorphism. Integumental surface bright, including the elytral declivity. Pronotum bearing spiculae not rising much from the surface; they are bright and irregularly spaced; in the basal part, they are replaced by a clear punctuation but a wide median strip is bright and smooth; the highest part of pronotum is in the centre where spines are replaced by punctures; the pubescence on pronotum is abundant, the one between the spiculae with apex curved posteriorly, the one on the basal half with apex curved anteriorly.

The elytral striae have rows of punctures that progressively increase in diameter and depth towards the elytral declivity. Pubescence on elytral declivity long and straight. Sutural interstria slightly protruding, with a regular row of setae on both sides of sutura.

Males bearing three pairs of prominent denticles on the elytral declivity; sutural denticle vertical with apex sometimes directed anteriorly; the median tooth is strongest, hook-shaped, with rounded apex directed towards the suture and inferiorly; apical tooth with a regularly increasing diameter, slightly curved superiorly with pointed apex.

Frons bearing sparse and fine pubescence see Pictures. Females with teeth on the elytral declivity reduced and approximately the same shape. Frons with small median prominence and dense tuft of long yellow hairs protruding towards anterior margin of pronotum. Hairs on frons and pronotum of the same length. Metasternum and abdominal sternites bearing long yellow hairs sloping posteriorly, similar to those on the upper surface. Wing with anal lobe well separated from the rest of wing surface by a deep, wide retraction of the margin.

Distribution Top of page P. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. According to Schedl , the reports by Kleine , referring to Greenland, South Africa and Argentina but not confirmed by more recent records, are probably invalid and based on misidentification.

Risk of Introduction Top of page The phytosanitary hazard related to P. The main causes of bark beetle outbreaks are long dry spells, which are becoming increasingly frequent in southern regions of Europe Kailidis and Markalas, ; Rieder, ; Tsankov et al.

Other trees which serve as hosts to P. Growth Stages Top of page Vegetative growing stage. Symptoms Top of page The beginning of an attack on a tree by P. The diameter of the entrance holes is about 1. The change of the normal canopy colour to light-yellow at first and then red usually takes about two months see pictures. Biology and Ecology Top of page The literature on the biology and ecology of Pityokteines curvidens is very rich, the most important papers being those by Kraemer , Chararas ; , Kailidis and Georgevits , Vasechko and Harring Physiology and phenology P.

However, it can also survive the winter under the bark healthy firs, somewhat damaging the infested trees Braun, b. It frequently overwinters in the larval or pupal stages; in fact it is possible to find parent beetles, differently aged larvae, as well as pupae and newly emerged adults under the bark at the same time.

The pupal stage is the most vulnerable to low temperatures. Adults leave the winter sites and start their reproductive phase from the second half of April or somewhat later according to the climatic conditions, altitude and exposure of the stands Cecconi, ; Chararas, When there are two generations, the second one starts in August.

After finding suitable trees to colonise, the pioneer males start boring their galleries under the bark, where they feed on living tissues.

After 24 to 36 hours of feeding, they begin to release the aggregation pheromone via their frass; the main component is S-ipsenolo S methylmethyleneoctenol. Only males release this pheromone, which repels the other two congeneric species, P. Thus they rarely colonise the same tree. The gallery system usually lacks a distinct nuptial chamber hollowed in the alburnum see Pictures , unlike that of the other congeneric Palaearctic species see Pictures.

The entrance hole is followed by a longitudinal chamber cm long; from its end, the females start digging their transverse tunnels, cm long, slightly hollowing the alburnum. When there is only one male and two females, the gallery system scheme is the classic double horizontal brace see Pictures ; however, depending on the number of females, it can sometimes be asymmetrically incomplete or more intricate.

Each female can lay eggs in niches hollowed with their mandibles on both sides of the maternal gallery. After the first egg-laying and after feeding again, the females can dig another short tunnel and lay other eggs, starting a new, delayed generation Chararas, ; Pennacchio et al. Embryonic development can last six days on trees in sunny stands up to m altitude, but can extend to 17 days at higher altitude or on shaded firs.

The larvae start feeding and digging galleries, cm long, orthogonal to the maternal ones see Pictures ; their development can last from 30 to 50 days depending on the same environmental factors. When mature, the larvae bore into the alburnum, reaching a depth of mm, where they dig the pupal cell 6 x 2 mm. There they change into pupae and days later into adults see Pictures. The adults emerge from the tree bark after feeding on phloem tissues for days the maturation phase during which they attain their definitive dark brown colour Chararas, Armillaria due to either waterlogging or a prolonged dry spells.

The latter is more frequent in the southern areas of the geographical range of Abies alba, i. Colonization of a new host plant starts from the tip and then reaches the base. Even very old trees with thick bark can be attacked.

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