Avoid foods that are grown with pesticides as much as possible. LH stimulates ovulation in the female and the secretion of sex hormones in both the male and the female. Metabolism is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the body's cells to convert the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. Your body also needs Vitamin C, which is found in the green leafies, oranges, mango, parsley, broccoli, and cabbage. When low calcium is detected, the PTH increases calcium by causing it to be released from the bone, which results in calcium reabsorption by the kidneys and the digestive system. The brain has different feedback loops and hormonal messaging that regulate metabolism, which in turn helps us maintain nutrition. Choose organic produce as much as possible to avoid the pesticides, herbicides, and chemicals that inhibit or imitate hormones.
The posterior lobe neurohypophysis of the pituitary gland is composed of nervous tissue. The hormones that it secretes are produced in the hypothalamus, transported to the neurohypophysis directly through the tissue connecting the organs, and released from storage in the posterior lobe by neural stimulation from the hypothalamus.
See the following table and Figure for the hormones secreted by the neurohypophysis and their effects. Oxytocin, a hormone, should not be confused with oxytocia, which means a rapid delivery. The thyroid gland is a single organ, but is divided into right and left lobes that are joined by a thin structure termed the isthmus Fig.
It is located in the anterior part of the neck and is bounded by the trachea behind it and the thyroid cartilage above it. It regulates the metabolism of the body and normal growth and development, and controls the amount of calcium Ca deposited into bone. The thyroid gland is composed of small sacs, called follicles, that absorb iodine.
The sacs are surrounded by follicular cells that produce triiodothyronine T 3 and thyroxine T 4. Parafollicular cells in the thyroid produce and secrete calcitonin, which controls the amount of calcium in the blood. Thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH , released by the anterior pituitary gland, causes the thyroid to release T 3 and T 4. Thyroid Gland Hormones and Their Effects. The parathyroids are four small glands right and left, superior and inferior located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland in the neck.
They secrete parathyroid hormone PTH in response to a low level of calcium in the blood. When low calcium is detected, the PTH increases calcium by causing it to be released from the bone, which results in calcium reabsorption by the kidneys and the digestive system. PTH is inhibited by high levels of calcium. The adrenal glands, also called the suprarenals, are paired, one on top of each kidney. Different hormones are secreted by the two different parts of these glands: The adrenal medulla is the inner portion of the adrenal gland.
It produces sympathomimetic hormones that stimulate the fight-or-flight response to stress, similar to the action of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal Cortex Hormones and Their Effects. The pancreas, located inferior and posterior to the stomach, is a gland with both exocrine and endocrine functions Fig.
The exocrine function is to release digestive enzymes through a duct into the small intestines. The endocrine function, accomplished through a variety of types of cells called islets of Langerhans, is to regulate the level of glucose in the blood by stimulating the liver. The two main types of islets of Langerhans are alpha and beta cells.
Alpha cells produce the hormone glucagon, which increases the level of glucose in the blood when levels are low. Beta cells secrete insulin, which decreases the level of glucose in the blood when levels are high. Insulin is needed to transport glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells. In the absence of glucose in the cells, proteins and fats are broken down, causing excessive fatty acids and ketones in the blood.
Normally, these hormones regulate glucose levels through the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. See Figure for a diagram explaining the effects of insulin and glucagon. The thymus gland is located in the mediastinum above the heart.
It releases a hormone called thymosin, which is responsible for stimulating key cells in the immune response. For more details, see Chapter 9 on the circulatory and lymphatic systems. The ovaries and testes, the female and male gonads, also act as endocrine glands, which influence reproductive functions.
The pineal body gland is located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete the hormone melatonin, thought to be responsible for inducing sleep.
Aside from the endocrine organs that have been discussed, there are a number of tiny arteriovenous structures that act as chemoreceptors throughout the body. These structures, called glomera sing. What are the top factors that throw off balance within the endocrine system? Food is Medicine You can start to heal your endocrine system through nutrition.
The basic dietary approach goes back to understanding that all hormones are made from cholesterol, so avoid low fat diets and consume good healthy fats that are rich in omega fats.
It is well studied that eating a diet rich in varied, colorful veggies will give your body the nutrients and nutrition that it needs to function properly and to prevent cancer. Your body also needs Vitamin C, which is found in the green leafies, oranges, mango, parsley, broccoli, and cabbage. Vitamin C prevents free radical damage, strengthens and maintains healthy cell integrity, improves wound healing, enhances immune function, inhibits cancer formation, and lower inflammation.
Natural carotenes, the orange pigment found in carrots, sweet potatoes, and cantaloupe aid balance by promoting healthy differentiation of cells, is a potent antioxidant, and enhances the immune system.
The glands emit chemicals controlling many bodily functions, including cell growth and development, mood, sexual functions, and metabolism it is the thyroid gland that directly affects metabolism. Metabolism is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the body's cells to convert the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing.
There are specific proteins in the body to control the chemical reactions of metabolism, and each chemical reaction is coordinated with other body functions. In fact, thousands of metabolic reactions happen at the same time - all regulated by the body - to keep our cells healthy and working.
When a cell produces optimum energy, then it has the capacity to fulfill its many functions involving regeneration, detoxification, and its unique, genetically programmed role such as might be had by a heart cell, a liver cell, a muscle cell, a brain cell, a nerve cell, and so forth.
If cells of like kind have the energy to efficiently fulfill their functions, then the organs or glands they comprise can fulfill their functions. And, if the organs and glands have the energy to efficiently fulfill their functions, then the systems they comprise can efficiently carry out their functions.
So, for example, the strength and efficiency of the immune system depends on the strength and efficiency of the organs that comprise it.