It is in a Kashmir city Sirinagar. The term was first applied to those inhabitants of medieval towns in France who occupied a position somewhere between the peasants and the landowning nobility; soon it was extended to the middle class of other nations. I ordered some of her products a long time ago, but I guess this is a new site There's an horrible accident on the expressway, so "Ask the Hair Doctor will be streaming live at Key Kutz Macon Rd. The mother of Ibrahim R.
I più antichi esemplari di libro erano sotto forma di volumen o rotolo e per lo più scritti a mano su papiro. Dal II secolo a.
Nel mondo antico non godette di molta fortuna a causa del prezzo elevato rispetto a quello del papiro. Tuttavia aveva il vantaggio di una maggiore resistenza e la possibilità di essere prodotto senza le limitazioni geografiche imposte dal clima caldo per la crescita del papiro.
Il libro in forma di rotolo consisteva in fogli preparati da fibre di papiro phylire disposte in uno strato orizzontale lo strato che poi riceveva la scrittura sovrapposto ad uno strato verticale la faccia opposta. La scrittura era effettuata su colonne, generalmente sul lato del papiro che presentava le fibre orizzontali. Non si hanno molte testimonianze sui rotoli di pergamena tuttavia la loro forma era simile a quella dei libri in papiro.
Gli inchiostri neri utilizzati erano a base di nerofumo e gomma arabica. Dal II secolo d. La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario. In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Nel Medioevo si fanno strada alcune innovazioni: Il prezzo molto basso di questo materiale, ricavato da stracci e quindi più abbondante della pergamena, ne favorisce la diffusione.
Ma bisogna aspettare la seconda metà del XV secolo per incontrare il processo di stampa tradizionalmente attribuito ad un'invenzione del tedesco Gutenberg. Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura.
La parola membranae , letteralmente "pelli", è il nome che i romani diedero al codex di pergamena ; il dono che i citati distici dovevano accompagnare era quasi sicuramente una copia dell'opera completa di Marziale, quindici libri in forma di codice e non di rotolo, più comune in quell'epoca. Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgilio , di Cicerone e Livio.
Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto. Quando c'era bisogno di più spazio di quello offerto da una singola tavoletta, gli scribi ne aggiungevano altre, impilate una sopra all'altra e legate insieme con una corda che passava nei buchi precedentemente forati su uno dei margini: Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette.
Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno. Ad un certo punto i romani inventarono un taccuino più leggero e meno ingombrante, sostituendo legno o avorio con fogli di pergamena: Il passo fu breve dall'usare due o tre fogli come taccuino al legarne insieme una certa quantità per trascrivere testi estesi - in altre parole, creando un codex nel senso proprio che usiamo oggigiorno.
Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d. Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota. Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno.
La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta. I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omero , per esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe".
Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro. In Egitto , dove cresceva la pianta del papiro ed era centro della sua manifattura per materiale scrittorio, il codex di tale materiale era naturalmente più comune della pergamena: Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena.
È quindi logico credere che la stessa preferenza venisse usata per il codex quando questo divenne disponibile. I ritrovamenti egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice. Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d.
Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Verso il d. Il rotolo comunque aveva ancora parecchi secoli davanti a sé, ma solo per documenti; quello che la gente leggeva per piacere, edificazione o istruzione era praticamente tutto su codici. I ritrovamenti egiziani gettano luce anche sulla transizione del codex dal papiro alla pergamena.
Sebbene gli undici codici della Bibbia datati in quel secolo fossero papiracei, esistono circa 18 codici dello stesso secolo con scritti pagani e quattro di questi sono in pergamena. Non ne scegliemmo alcuno, ma ne raccogliemmo altri otto per i quali gli diedi dracme in conto. Deios, a quanto pare un libraio ambulante, voleva vendere una quantità di almeno quattordici codici di pergamena, che interessavano un residente del villaggio egiziano.
Il codex tanto apprezzato da Marziale aveva quindi fatto molta strada da Roma. Nel terzo secolo, quando tali codici divennero alquanto diffusi, quelli di pergamena iniziarono ad essere popolari. In breve, anche in Egitto , la fonte mondiale del papiro , il codice di pergamena occupava una notevole quota di mercato. I codici più antichi che sono sopravvissuti fuori dall'Egitto risalgono al quarto e quinto secolo d.
Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena. Per tali edizioni di lusso il papiro era certamente inadatto. In almeno un'area, la giurisprudenza romana , il codex di pergamena veniva prodotto sia in edizioni economiche che in quelle di lusso. Titoli di compilazioni celebri, il Codice teodosiano promulgato nel , ed il Codice giustinianeo promulgato nel , indicano che gli imperatori li facevano scrivere su codici, sicuramente di pergamena dato che erano più duraturi e più capienti e inoltre di ottima qualità, dato che erano prodotti sotto l'egida dell'imperatore.
Dall'altro lato, basandoci sulle annotazioni di Libanio , intellettuale del IV secolo che nelle sue molteplici attività faceva anche l'insegnante di legge , si apprende che i libri di testo dei suoi studenti erano codici di pergamena. Le ragioni erano buone: La caduta dell'Impero romano nel V secolo d. Il papiro divenne difficile da reperire a causa della mancanza di contatti con l' Antico Egitto e la pergamena , che per secoli era stata tenuta in secondo piano, divenne il materiale di scrittura principale.
I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente. La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominava ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale.
I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. Essi adottarono questo sistema perché leggevano con difficoltà le parole latine. L'innovazione fu poi adottata anche nei Paesi neolatini come l'Italia , anche se non divenne comune prima del XII secolo.
Si ritiene che l'inserimento di spazi tra le parole abbia favorito il passaggio dalla lettura semi-vocalizzata a quella silenziosa. Prima dell'invenzione e della diffusione del torchio tipografico , quasi tutti i libri venivano copiati a mano, il che li rendeva costosi e relativamente rari. I piccoli monasteri di solito possedevano al massimo qualche decina di libri, forse qualche centinaio quelli di medie dimensioni.
In Età carolingia le più grandi collezioni raccoglievano circa volumi; nel Basso Medioevo la biblioteca pontificia di Avignone e la biblioteca della Sorbona di Parigi possedevano circa 2. Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso. Il supporto di scrittura più usato nell'Alto Medioevo, la pergamena, o vellum pelle di vitello , doveva essere preparato, poi le pagine libere venivano pianificate e rigate con uno strumento appuntito o un piombo , dopo di che il testo era scritto dallo scriba , che di solito lasciava aree vuote a scopo illustrativo e rubricativo.
Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore . Le copertine erano fatte di legno e ricoperte di cuoio. Poiché la pergamena secca tende ad assumere la forma che aveva prima della trasformazione, i libri erano dotati di fermagli o cinghie.
In quest'epoca si usavano differenti tipi di inchiostro , usualmente preparati con fuliggine e gomma, e più tardi anche con noce di galla e solfato ferroso. Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature. A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus.
Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta. Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolai , che produssero sia materiale religioso che profano .
Nelle prime biblioteche pubbliche i libri venivano spesso incatenati ad una libreria o scrivania per impedirne il furto. Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi.
Secondo la tradizione ebraica, il rotolo della Torah posto nella sinagoga deve esser scritto a mano su pergamena e quindi un libro stampato non è permesso, sebbene la congregazione possa usare libri di preghiere stampati e copie della Bibbia ebraica possano esser utilizzate per studio fuori della sinagoga.
Lo scriba ebraico sofer è altamente rispettato nell'ambito della comunità ebraica osservante. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamico , sviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia araba , miniatura e legatoria. Un certo numero di città del mondo islamico medievale furono sede di centri di produzione libraria e di mercati del libro. Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa".
In xilografia , un'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intarsiata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cina , durante la Dinastia Han prima del a. Il libro più antico stampato con questo sistema è il Sutra del Diamante d.
I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. Questa invenzione gradualmente rese i libri meno laboriosi e meno costosi da produrre e più ampiamente disponibili.
La stampa è una delle prime e più importanti forme di produzione in serie. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli.
Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsa , il leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenati , Biblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddisti , il primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Potevano impostare più di 6. I secoli successivi al XV videro quindi un graduale sviluppo e miglioramento sia della stampa, sia delle condizioni di libertà di stampa , con un relativo rilassamento progressivo delle legislazioni restrittive di censura. A metà del XX secolo , la produzione libraria europea era salita a oltre Nella seconda metà del XX secolo la tecnologia informatica ha reso possibile con la diffusione di libri in formato elettronico, poi chiamati eBook o e-book da electronic book ,una rivoluzione in quanto come ha evidenziato il bibliofilo Nick Carr dalle caratterestiche della carta stampata ovvero: Nel  nasce il Progetto Gutenberg , lanciato da Michael S.
Hart , la prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. L'uso degli eBook al posto dei libri stampati si è tuttavia diffuso solo all'inizio del XXI secolo .
I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Il foglio stampato viene poi opportunamente piegato per ottenere un fascicolo o segnatura di più pagine progressive.
Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossura , era di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolo , mentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio.
Nei libri moderni il formato è dato dall'altezza in centimetri, misurata al frontespizio , entro un minimo e un massimo convenzionalmente stabilito.
Il termine " tascabile " riferito al libro rappresenta un concetto commerciale e identifica libri economici stampati in sedicesimo, la cui diffusione, a partire dall'ultimo Ottocento ma soprattutto nella seconda metà del XX secolo , ha permesso un notevole calo dei prezzi. Sostanzialmente - sia per il formato, sia per l'economicità - esso trova precedenti nella storia del libro anteriore alla stampa, già a partire dall'antichità il "libro che sta in una mano": Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura.
Non facendo parte delle segnature , non sono mai contati come pagine. La loro utilità pratica è evidente in libri cartonati, o rilegati in tela, pelle o pergamena, dove aiutano a tenere unita la coperta rigida al blocco del libro. Nel libro antico le sguardie, poste a protezione delle prime pagine stampate o manoscritte del testo, contribuiscono a tenerlo insieme alla copertina con spaghi o fettucce passanti nelle cuciture al dorso; nel libro moderno è invece la garza che unisce i fascicoli alla copertina.
Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio. In origine era costituito dalla firma del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo che conteneva, spesso in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l'insegna dell'editore.
Di norma i fascicoli che costituiscono il libro vengono tenuti insieme da un involucro detto appunto '"coperta" o "copertina", è la parte più esterna del libro spesso rigida e illustrata. Usata raramente fino a tutto il Settecento quando solitamente l'editore vendeva i libri slegati o applicava una semplice copertina di protezione, che veniva poi gettata dal legatore divenne molto popolare a partire dai primi anni dell' Ottocento , forse su impulso degli stampatori Brasseur di Parigi .
Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Name of the son of Hazarat Yaqoob A. S whose off-springs are the Yahooda Injunction of utilization of zakat is in which Surah? Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf Caliph Abu Bakar The Battle of Badr was fought in the month of ———?
The meaning of Ya Sabahah is? Draws the attention of others to some dangers Saad bin Abi Waqqas R. In order to authenticate the credentials of his messengers, a ———- seal was made. Who established Stipends for the poor among the Jews and the Christians?
Qibla was changed from Jerusalem to Khana-e-Kabba in? The mother of Ibrahim R. A was —Maria R. Which pillar of Islam is declared as an armour?
What was the important event in the month of 13th Nabavi? What is the seventh belief in Iman-e-Mufassal? Good and bad is predetermined by Allah The conqueror of Central Asia was Qutayba bin Muslim. The last caliph of Ummayyads was Marwan II. Uqba bin Nafah R. Abdullah bin Ubay was a Hypocrite Hazrat Zakariya AS He came to Sindh in He was tortured to death in Iraq by Sulaiman.
He was of Turkic descent from central Asia, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty also known as the Ghulam dynasty of India. He ruled for only four years, from to AD. He died while playing polo in Lahore. Three important battles were fought on this ground. First between Babur against Ibrahim Lodi in A.
Second was between Bairam against Hemu in A. He traveled over the quarter part of the world from China to India. Ibn-e-Batota was at the court of Muhammad bin Taghluq. The first Sultan of Delhi to issue regular currency and declared Delhi as the capital of his empir.
The Chalisa or the Group of Forty was the nick name of the forty leading slave officers of Iltumish. The Diwan-e-Arz or the department of military affairs was created by Balban. Abul al Fazl was a son of Sheikh Mubarak. He was one of the Nau Ratans of Akbar the Great.
Akbar prohibited the practice of Sati. Akbar the Great was born in Umar Kot. Lahore Fort was built in by Akbar. Infallibility Decree was a document signed by Akbar in , which authorized him to act as the supreme arbitrator in civil and ecclesiastical affairs.
He was also the brother of Faizi, the poet laureate of emperor Akbar. The elements were primarily drawn from Islam and Hinduism, but some others were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism. He served as a liaison officer between the emperor and the people.
He was chiefly instrumental in the victory of Mughals over Hamu in She was an accomplished lady and assisted her husband in the affairs of state. Shalamar Bagh was built in by Shah Jahan. Jahan Ara begum was the daughter of Shah Jahan. It was constructed under the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in It is a small, white marble structure built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, and is among his prominent extensions such as Sheesh Mahal and Naulakha pavilion to the Lahore Fort Complex.
Red Fort of Delhi was built by Shahjehan. Data Ganj Baksh is the author of Kashful Mahjoob. His tomb is in the city of Kasur. D, the 2nd battle of Tarrin, Ghori wins. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhandi was born in and died in Shah Waliullah born in He was died in Haji Shareetullah of Bengal was the founder of Farazi Tehrik in Farazi Tehrik meant to pay more attention on fundamental of Islam. He was martyred at Balakot NWF in Arya Samaj was founded in Non-cooperation Movement was started during the days of Khilafat Movement.
Tomb of Jahangir is at Lahore. Road and Rohtas fort. Imperial Highway is the old name of G. The tomb of Babur is situated at Kabul. Bala Hisar Fort is one of the most historic places of Peshawar. It was built by Zaheer-ud-Din Baber. It is in a Kashmir city Sirinagar. It has seen three historic battles among the local rules of this area. It is also called gateway to Delhi. Her father preferred her as his successor over his twenty sons. Purana Qila and its environs flourished as the sixth city of Delhi.
He spent his early life under the patronage of Khwarizm Shah. He stayed for a while at the court of Qabus in Tabaristan where he dedicated his monumental work, the Chronology of the Ancient Nations, to Qabus.
In Mahmood took him to Ghazni. He spent several years in the sub-continent and probably died in Later in he was taken to Dehli and sold to Iltutmish. He had introduced a number of Rags in the Indian music industry. He discovered first of all a direct route to India in He was the brother of Abul Fazl. He was one of the nobles of that era. He introduced and implemented the Revenue system in the subcontinent successfully. He was one of the Nau Ratan of Akbar.
His real name was Siddharta. Chandragupta was the founder of Maurya dynasty. It is the name of Pakistani robotic telecommunication and low Earth observatory satellites family. The first of satellites, Badr-1, was launched on 16 July, It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeastern province of present-day Pakistan.
The university is situated beside the river Indus in the mountains of Tarbela and Gadoon-Amazai, in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa near the town of Topi and in proximity to the lakes of Tarbela and Ghazi. They form delta for PakistanThese seven rivers were the source of irrigation of a very large area of Indian sub continent. It is an absolute reality that in the old Indian History Hindh and Sindh were two separate countries which were divided by natural boundries created by SAPTA Sinhdu comprising upon seven rivers.
It is famous for chromite. The Sikhs during the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh made a stone pond here in his memory. Women Protection Bill was passed on 15 Nov This later became Aligarh Muslim University in The ruins of the city were discovered in by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River.
It also served as the capital of the Mughals until K Gandhi 1st time in Lucknow. On January 15, A Bhutto is the first elected PM of Pakistan. What is his contribution to Physics? It is an autobiographical work, originally written in the Chagatai language. This method of irrigation is prevalent in Balochistan.
Bhutto and Indra Gandhi on July 3, Abdul Salam awarded Nobel Prize in Physics in On the other side, India got Ravi, Sutlaj and Beas. Mountbatten was an officer in British Navy.
Population of West Pakistan in was 34 million. According to Bogra formula the Lower house consisted of seats. Ayub Khan lifted the Martial Law on June 8, East Bengal had seats and Punjab had 85 seats in L.
In the elections of PPP got 62 seats out of total 82 common seats in Punjab. Bhutto studied in Southern California University. Bhutto was appointed Foreign Minister in Pakistan Peoples Party established in Poonch, a state of Kashmir, fought with Dogra by obtaining arms from tribal areas. We will not only keep these majorities but will turn them into a Muslim state. By a proclamation issued on 1st November , the Queen Victoria announced the transfer of the empire of the Company to the Crown.
He had assumed the charge of his office in He also wrote a commentary on Bible know as Tabyin-ul-kalam, which developed into a scholarly work on comparative religion. In he founded a Translation Society in Ghazipur which later moved to Aligarh and named as scientific society. The chief object of this society was to get Standard English books translated into Urdu so as to make it possible for the Muslims to get acquainted with the latest developments of Western thought. This gave birth to a violent Hindu reaction to foreign influences.
He also began the Shuddhi movement for conversion of non-Hindus, particularly Muslims of Hindu origin to Hinduism. In Dayananda formed a Cow Protection Society to rouse Hindu feelings against Christians and Muslims for slaughtering cows and oxen.
It was forerunner of the Indian National Congress. Muslims had no role in Indian Association. George Yalle was first president of All India Congress. Militant Hindu Nationalism was started by B. It enlarged the legislative councils and extended their functions. In the Imperial Council the number of additional members was fixed between 10 and 16, of whom not more than six were to be officials.
Bengal branch of All India Muslim League was established in According to Govt of India Act of Counsel of state has seats. Pirpur Report was prepared to investigate the tyrannies of Congress on Muslims. Sharif Report was prepared to investigate the cruelties on Congress in Bihar. Ambidkar and Gandhi were the signatories of Pona Pact.
Hazrat Bullay Shah was a famous Sufi poet of Punjabi language. Shah Waliullah died in Minto Morley reforms came into India in Rowlatt Act was passed in by Sir Sydney Rowlatt.
Khilafat Delegation met Lord Chelmsford in under Dr. Migration Movement Muslims migrated. Gandhi announced the end of Khilafat Movement. Tragedy of Chora Churi happen on 4 February Sangathan movement was started by Pandit Malavia.
Treaty of Lausanne was signed in Lord Cornwalls is associated with permanent settlement of Bengal. Ali was born in and died on 28th Nov and buried at Jamia Mosque Delhi. Before that she was Parsi. She died on 20th Febrary and was buried in Aram Bagh Bombay.
Dinna; the daughter of Jinnah was born on 14th August, Dinna married a Parsi boy named Navel Wadya. Mandal was the non-Muslim member who became a minister in interim government on ML behalf.
It was founded by Abudl hameed Bhashwani in Jinnah passed away at G House Karachi and buried on 12th September, A. Basic Principles Committee presented its report in September, US ambassador who died with Zia was Arnold Raphael. Ghulam Muhammad was finance minister before becoming governor general of Pakistan. The initial assets of SBP were equal to three Crore. White strip in the flag was added in August and moon and star added in the flag February Muhaamad Ali in a meeting of All Parties Conference.
Yahya khan became C-in-C in March It was called Hamood Ur Rehman commission. Bhutto announced second package of agricultural reforms in Bhutto announced to dissociate Pakistan from the Commonwealth of Nations in Bhutto in March Cricket, however, is the most popular sport. Muhammad Ali is the name of first Secretary General of Pakistan. The plan proposed for a Bicameral Legislature with equal representation for all the five provinces of the country in the Upper House.
The province was composed of twelve divisions and the provincial capital was established at Lahore. He was the first President of the Constituent Assembly. Khan was the first Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan. Atmaram Pandurang in with an aim to make people believe in one God and worship only one God.
It is approximately 90 km north of Hyderabad. In request of M. Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. Tashkent Treaty 10 jan. Platform of Rohri Station. Pakistan Steel Mills Karachi. Seven political agencies and six frontier regions. Pakistan Oppressed Nations Movement. C of Pakistan Navy? Surface to air missile. Air Marshal Asghar Khan. Inspiration of our future. Iran, Iraq and Turkey. Bhutto took oath as President under the Provisional Constitution on? Ayub Khan suspended Iskandar Mirza on?
C was changed in Chief of Staff? The first Muslim League Government was formed in Sindh in The first constituent assembly of Pakistan was dissolved on 24th Oct, and Mir Maulvi Tamizuddin was its speaker.
N on 30th September and Afghanistan Opposed it. Fazal Ilahi got expired. It has following immediate neighbors. Radchiff live and Run off Kuchh are two boundary lines between India and Pakistan. Run off kuchh is also called 24th parallel line, it was signed in Two railway lines connect Pakistan with India. One through Wagah near Lahore connects Atari near Amritsar. Other exists between khokrapar Sindh and Munabao India in leare-fire line came into existence, but line of control km was demarcated in simla agreement.
Karakoram and Himalayas are two snow capped mountain Ranges which make a border between the two countries. Boundary agreement between china and Pakistan was ringed in The border between Pakistan and china is km. Pakistan had a longest border with Afghanistan which is km. It is called Durand line. It was established in by an agreement between Afghanistan British Rulers.
There are two important Roads that link Afghanistan with Pakistan. Another links Quetta to Kandhar via the Khojak Pass. There is km long direct border between Pakistan and Iran. The boundary line demarcated in There is a railway link between Pakistan and Iran.
Koh-i-Taftan is border railway station in Pakistan and Zahedan in Iran. Another road links sowthern Balochistan through turbot and Mand with Iran.
Pakistan port Gawadar is very strategically located. It can effectively guard the Strait of Hormuz which is a major route for oil and other traffic of the Gulf area. It has common borders with Iran and Afghanistan. It shares its border with the remaining three provinces and the Arabian Sea also. It has common border with Punjab, Balochistan and Northern Area. It is the second highest peak in the world.
Karakoram Range separates Pakistan from china and made a boundary between two countries. They are nearly km wide.
The longest are the Siachen 72 kms and the Biafo kms. It is m high and second highest Peak in Pakistan. It was first conquered in It is m high. It starts from Pamir. Pakistan has 82 Peaks in her territory. It guards the northern border of Pakistan. Areas of Chitral and Dir are in this Mountain Range. Its average height is m. Its height is m. It is the largest glacier of Pakistan it is 72km long.
It is also the highest glacier of Pakistan. It connects Dir with Chitral. It connects Quetta with Sindh Plains. It also connects Abbotabad with Gilgit. It is m high in Toba Kakar Range. It is a gateway to Chinese area Yarkand. It is on the River Soan. Overall the Makran Coast is fairly straight with no marked indentions.
The largest Island of Pakistan is Manora. It is kilometers long. The Indus and its tributaries constitute the whole River system of Indus.
It is kilometers Long River. It has a catchment area of , square kms. Balochistan other rivers Porali and Dasht are major rivers. It is km long. Length of Pak-Iran border is km. Length of Pak-China border is km. Length of Pak-Afghan border is km. Rawal Dam is on Kurrang River. Khanpur dam is on Haro River. Tanda dam is in Baluchistan. Tarbela deam was completed in Ferozpur Head works is located on river Sutluj.
It is commonly known as Killer Mountain. Karakoram was completed in the total period of 20 years. Karakoram highway passes through khunjrab pass. Tropic of cancer crosses Pakistan. English is the official language of Pakistan and is used in government.
It is located on River Kabul. It is located near Sui in Balochistan. The gas field was discovered in the late and the commercial exploitation of the field began in It is Lake of Salt water. Sat Para Lake is situated in Baltistan Sakardu. It is located on the western bank of Indus River. It is the site of the proposed Kalabagh Dam. It is also famous for its red hills of the salt range and scenic view of the Indus River traversing through the hills.
It also produces handicrafts especially footwear, Makhadi Halwa and also famous for minerals of Iron. Initially, 2-lanes will be constructed after the completion of which another 2-lane will be added, thus making a total of 4-lanes. It is located in Baltistan Kashmir. It also has courses through western Tibet in China and Northern India. Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistan and flows through Pakistan in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh.
The total length of the river is km. It has long been a strategic trade and invasion route. Tarbela Dam is part of the Indus Basin Project, which resulted from a water treaty signed in between India and Pakistan, guaranteeing Pakistan water supplies independent of upstream control by India.
Construction began in , and was completed in at a cost of Rs. It is the biggest hydel power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3, MW of electricity. It is located about km upstream of Tarbela Dam and about km downstream of Gilgit. The dam is supposed to have a power generation capacity of megawatts and is expected to considerable ease up the skewed hydro to thermal power generation ratio in Pakistan.
The proposed site for the dam is situated at Kalabagh in Mianwali District of the northwest Punjab province, bordering KP. Ghazi Barotha Hydroelectric project is located around km from Islamabad. This lake was created when Namal Dam was constructed in The site comprises a small water storage area in semi-arid hills in the catchments of the Kohat Toi River. Ideal for a day trip, the lake has a quiet atmosphere. It was built during the British Raj from to as the Lloyd Barrage to help alleviate famines caused by lack of rain.
Misriot dam is located 12 km southwest of Rawalpindi. This small dam has an artificial lake with boating and fishing facilities. It is the highest point in Kaghan Valley. It can be reached by a difficult trek from Saiful Mulook Lake. The name comes from its tear-like shape. Federally Administered Tribal Areas: Population million estimated million census Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz.
Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Districts.
Imports Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea. Exports Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs.
It consists of members. The National Assembly has a total membership of elected through adult suffrage general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats. Pakistan National Flag Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle.
The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam 2. The shield in the centre shows four major crops 3. Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage and 4. National Tree Deodar Cedrus Deodara. K2 Karakoram 2. Naga parbat Himalaya 3. Crasherburm I Karakoram 4.
Board Peak Karakoram 5. Crasherburm II Karakoram 6. Crasherburm IV Karakoram 8. Pakaposhi Karakoram 9. Tirch Mir Hindu Kush Noshaq Hindu Kush Doctrine of Lapse Lord Dalhousie Adoption of sons by rulers in the absence of their natural heirs was banned 3. Rowlatt Act Lord Chelmsford Extraordinary powers were given to government to suppress the freedom struggle with General Dyer as the Commandant Simon Commission Lord Irwin To report working of the reforms; recommended diarchy in provinces India to be constituted as a federation and Indianization of armed forces Wavell Plan Lord Wavell Envisaged constitution of executive council in such a way as to give representation to all major communities in India His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics especially geometry from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.
The Sahara is the largest desert of the world. It has an area of 1,, sq. Maldives is the smallest Muslim country in land area of sq. Its height is up to 2. While the humming bird is smallest bird. India and Sri Lanka.
Black sea and sea of marmara. It separates Italy from Sicily? They have been recorded making noises at decibels. Srimao Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka. C , died B. Virus H1N1 virus sometimes called Swine flu. Oldest town is Jericho Jordan. In , the Ngultrum was introduced, and replacing the rupee at par. The Ngultrum is equal in value to the Indian rupee.
She is the first Muslim woman who won the noble prize. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean.
These waters separate Eastern Europe and western Asia. This word is often used to refer to the best known one, the Moscow Kremlin, or the government that is based there. Vietnam and the Republic of China Taiwan also claim sovereignty of these islands. Its headquarters are in New York City.
It is the largest U. The profit sharing ratio is determined at the time of entering into the Mudarabah agreement whereas in case of loss it is borne by the Rab-ul-Mal only.
In case of Islamic banks, the depositors are called Rabb-ul-Maal and the bank is called Mudarib. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.
King has become a national icon in the history of modern American liberalism. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Ghana. The Gili Islands are on the Lombok side.
She died on Sep: It is famous for the official residence of the British Prime Minister. It is the longest street in the world. It is regarded as biggest street in the world. Abdul Qadeer Khan did his Ph. It separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe. The French Revolution — , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe.
The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. In fact, he was the only American to be praised by Hitler? General Assembly usually meet every year of? Third Tuesday of September. Pakistan is the second largest; Sri Lanka is the largest tea exporter and India is the largest tea producer country in the world.
What does AOL stand for? Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes. Korea north korea and south korea. Unilateral declaration of independence. Severe Acute Respiratory System. The Gospel according to Saint Matthew. At a moderate tempo. Apart from the marginal seas along its irregular western rim, it has an area of million sq km 64 million sq mi , substantially larger than the entire land surface of the globe.
Tornado, violently rotating column of air extending from within a thundercloud see Cloud down to ground level. The strongest tornadoes may sweep houses from their foundations, destroy brick buildings, toss cars and school buses through the air, and even lift railroad cars from their tracks. In South America, a vast, forested area of the Amazon River basin in Brazil and neighboring countries is by far the largest rain forest in the world. It encompasses more than 3. Schizophrenia, severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms, including loss of contact with reality, bizarre behavior, disorganized thinking and speech, decreased emotional expressiveness, and social withdrawal.
Called also the Glorius Revolution in England, it marked the end of the despotic rule of the Stuarts and gave way to parliamentary rule there in A kind of dress. An index of words or topics in a book. Birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte. Blockade, naval operation conducted by a country at war, with the object of closing to foreign commerce the vital ports of an enemy country and thereby aiding in the military defeat of that country by denying it access to supplies and communications from without.
The term was first applied to those inhabitants of medieval towns in France who occupied a position somewhere between the peasants and the landowning nobility; soon it was extended to the middle class of other nations.
Small State between two larger ones, regarded as reducing friction. Détente, policy toward a rival nation or bloc of nations characterized by increased diplomatic, commercial, and cultural contact and a desire to reduce tensions, as through negotiations or talks.
Agreement binding in honour but not enforceable. Filibuster, in legislative procedure, term denoting the means employed by members of a legislative assembly to delay or prevent action on a measure to which they are opposed. Such means may include the introduction of dilatory motions, intentional absence from the assembly in order to prevent the existence of a quorum, or the presentation of abnormally long, often meaningless speeches.
Deflation involves a sustained decline in the aggregate level of prices, such as occurred during the Great Depression of the s; it is usually associated with a prolonged erosion of economic activity and high unemployment. Widespread price declines have become rare, however, and inflation is now the dominant variable affecting public and private economic planning.
Spy out the movements and conditions of racehorses in training. Aiming to make the patient as comfortable as possible for as long as possible. Caucus, meeting of members of a political party at which the party conducts its business, discusses policies, and begins the process of nominating candidates for public office. The caucus method of choosing candidates is usually contrasted with the primary election.
Amnesia, loss or impairment of memory. Amnesia is usually associated with some form of brain damage, but it may also be caused by severe psychological trauma.
Lynching, hanging or other types of executions, in punishment of a presumed criminal offense, carried out by self-appointed commissions or mobs, without due process of law. The term lynching is generally believed to be derived from the name of a Virginia justice of the peace, Charles Lynch, who ordered extralegal punishment for Tory acts during the American Revolution Ignition, process or means of igniting a combustible substance.
Ignition occurs when the temperature of a substance is raised to the point at which its molecules will react spontaneously with oxygen, and the substance begins to burn. This temperature is called the ignition temperature or ignition point.
It is made out of Cotton. Banana Tree having no wood. The length of a wicket is 27 inches. Dreams from My Father 2. The story of a Nation is written by G. Babel-Mandab strait leads into the Red Sea. It joins Atlantic Ocean with Gulf of Mexico. It is longest strait in the world. The latter was defeated. Ghouri and Prithvi Raj in A. The former won the battle. Babur won the battle. Akbar won the battle. Ahmed Shah defeated the latter. Day landing during the Second World War on 6th June Normandy is located in France.
It is famous for tailoring and jewelry. It is the stock exchange market of Mumbai. This street is also called the Crookedest Street. It is the financial centre in San Francisco. It was built in It is famous for banking, finance and stock exchange market.
Atlas Mountains are in Morocco. First ascent made on July 31, First ascent was made on July 3, Aral is an inland sea. It pours into Black sea. It is the largest river of central Asia. It is in Brazil. It pours into Atlantic Ocean.
It is located in Siberia. Nasser on 26th July, It is also called the deepest seafloor depression in the world. Mississippi is longest river of America. It remains closed after Arab Israel War. America is most polluted lake in the world. It is the highest fall of Africa. Gobi, Karakum, Rub-al-Khali, Takla makan. Kalhari, Namib, and Sahara. Helena is in Atlantic Ocean. It was demarcated in It was demarcated in by Sir Cyril Radcliff.
It is frontier between Pakistan and India. It divides France from Germany. Its head quarter is in Brussels Belgium. It was formed on 2nd December, , its headquarter is in Mexico City.
The council has 54 members elected for the term of 3 years. It was established by peter Bomenson in the year of D Roosevelt and British Premier W. Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter on a battle ship. Its charter was drawn up from 25th April to 26th June, at San Francisco which was signed by 51 countries. Arab League was established on 22nd March He is from Nigeria. In what year was he born? Where did he die?
Alfred Nobel died in San Remo, Italy. Alfred Nobel wanted to award the greatest benefits to mankind. International Committee of the Red Cross. The Norwegian Nobel Committee. It has a total number of 74 alphabets. The Lambert Glacier enjoys the distinction of being the largest glacier in the world. It is located in the Australia Antarctic Territory. Its length is miles km and was discovered in It grows up to 3 feet in 24 hours.
Perry an American explorer reached North Pole on 6th April, for the first time in human history. He proved that the shape of the earth is round. It joins Red Sea with Mediterranean Sea. The plan of the Suez Canal was conceived by Ferdinand de Lesseps.
It travels at a phenomenal speed of , miles per second. Panch Pokhari is named after 5 holy ponds and Hindus religiously respect the place. Panch Pokhari Lake is just northeast of Kathmandu toward snow wall.
R is known as the architect of the Indian Constitution. It is a comparative figure showing cost of living, production prices, etc as compared with a base year. Debtors are likely to benefit by Inflation. Mendel is known as founder of genetics.
Pulitzer Prizes are awarded to Americans for excellence in journalism. Red Cross Movement was launched by J. D was the first Muslim dynasty. It has density of 5.
Its average height is 25 feet and about 12 feet wide at the top. It is feet one inch high from the base to torch. It has 9 zeroes. The Indo-European branch to which english belongs is germanic. It rises up to a height of metres feets. It is located in USA. C; this is included in seven wonder of the world. D Roosevelt was elected as president for three times. In China the Cultural Revolution lasted from The people residing there were traders by profession.
There is found of statue of bull, which denotes that people were worshippers of it. It was designed by Shiraz Iranian Architect over twenty years. It is the site of ancient archeological excavation. It is made of copper, located in the Liberty Island in New York. It was presented by France to US. It unveiled in Shah is a History. Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Fujaira are three of the seven states. S Congress in Washington D. C is on Capitol Hill.
One cosmic year is equal to the time taken by the sun to complete one orbit around the galactic centre. It divides the Pacific Ocean into two equal parts.