A New Life , W. Vitamin D aids in the development of sperm while increasing testosterone and boost your libido. The pump is essential in the promotion of new muscle growth. I bought this pump and didn't get to use it right away, nor do I have the receipt to return it, I still intend on keeping it for other applications just in case In terms of quieter operations, it does not disappoint, as the noise levels are around 45dB. The idea that animals might not feel pain as human beings feel it traces back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes , who argued that animals do not experience pain and suffering because they lack consciousness.
Plus the material used to bring this thing into existence is equivalent to a child's toy. If your intent for this product is to siphon out gas from a car, please do yourself a favor and spend the extra money on one that does not seem like you bought it at your local toy store. From Stranded In Clayton - Bought a tank of bad gas for my car. Bought the pump to siphon it out. Simply would not work. Tried putting the hose in the gas tank as far as it would go, tried it halfway in, tried it barely in, followed directions perfectly - keeping my finger over the end of the outside hose like it said.
Even used a stick to hold open the little inside cover in the tank in case it was cutting off the flow. Also, they need to change the packaging. A part of the hose was crimped in the package so had to try to work out the crimp before even attempting to use. Do not waste your money. Needed a siphon to empty 7 gallons from my generator. This siphon baffles me that it is even being sold. After about half a gallon siphoned I had to stop due to the amount of gas I was losing onto the garage floor.
Boy was I mad! It had started leaking right away after I had squeezed the bulb a few times to get it going. I had gas all over my hand. I thought maybe it would stop once it started flowing but NOPE! What a mess I made and also got gas all over my shoes. We're sorry to hear that you've had this experience. Please reach out to our team right away so that we can help find a solution for you!
Our team would be happy to help via chat on our website as well. All stores that carry that model are closed for the night, so I went to Walmart to get this to see me through the night and morning until I can buy another PISA. I had never used a manual pump, but this was pretty easy. It has a let down pump action to stimulate flow. I have two letdowns when I use my electric pump BUT, it is excellent at expressing and fast!
First time user and I pumped both breasts in under 15 minutes total at least through my first let down. And you can apparently upgrade this manual pump to an electric one the Symphony by purchasing other parts.
This is a wonderful manual pump. I had an electric that quit working properly so I looked into one of these. I was sceptical at first of a manual because I have not had good luck with them in the past. I knew Medela was one of the best, so I went ahead and bought it. It works better than my electric one did. I can get more milk in half the time that it took with the electric. I was worried at first about the suction of a manual because they normally are not strong enough.
This one is perfect. I would reccommend this to anyone in need. Mimommyofthree, September 2, I am a die hard breast feeding enthusiast, I nursed my daughter for 15 months, and plan to do the same with the one due this July.
And this pump was essential. As you're nursing from the left, the right breast will start leaking and vice-versa and every drop is precious! So I used the pump almost every time I nursed. Either I hadn't dried it properly after washing it or I hadn't assembled it correctly. I'll even admit to throwing it across the room once or twice out of sheer PPD frustration I would suggest getting plenty of extra bottles, a special place for baby bottles to dry, and definitely a bottle brush!
And make sure to completely take the pump apart and clean all the little crevices every few uses, you'll need q-tips. Overall, going into this 2nd pregnancy, I don't know if the baby will take to the breast as well as her sister, but at least I know I have a reliable pump! KS, May 16, Great For a Minute. Loved this the first day or 2. It got more than any other pump ever has. In general, researchers are required to consult with the institution's veterinarian and its Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC , which every research facility is obliged to maintain.
The CDC conducts infectious disease research on nonhuman primates, rabbits, mice, and other animals, while FDA requirements cover use of animals in pharmaceutical research. According to the U. The OIG found that "as a result, animals are not always receiving basic humane care and treatment and, in some cases, pain and distress are not minimized during and after experimental procedures". According to the report, within a three-year period, nearly half of all American laboratories with regulated species were cited for AWA violations relating to improper IACUC oversight.
Larry Carbone, a laboratory animal veterinarian, writes that, in his experience, IACUCs take their work very seriously regardless of the species involved, though the use of non-human primates always raises what he calls a "red flag of special concern". Funded by the National Science Foundation, the three-year study found that animal-use committees that do not know the specifics of the university and personnel do not make the same approval decisions as those made by animal-use committees that do know the university and personnel.
Specifically, blinded committees more often ask for more information rather than approving studies. Scientists in India are protesting a recent guideline issued by the University Grants Commission to ban the use of live animals in universities and laboratories. Accurate global figures for animal testing are difficult to obtain; it has been estimated that million vertebrates are experimented on around the world every year,  10—11 million of them in the EU.
None of the figures include invertebrates such as shrimp and fruit flies. By comparing with EU data, where all vertebrate species are counted, Speaking of Research estimated that around 12 million vertebrates were used in research in the US in Researchers found this increase is largely the result of an increased reliance on genetically modified mice in animal studies. In , researchers at Tufts University Center for Animals and Public Policy estimated that 14—21 million animals were used in American laboratories in , a reduction from a high of 50 million used in Congress Office of Technology Assessment reported that estimates of the animals used in the U.
The use of dogs and cats in research in the U. In GB, Home Office figures show that 3. A "procedure" refers here to an experiment that might last minutes, several months, or years. Most animals are used in only one procedure: The Three R's 3R's are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing.
These were first described by W. The 3R's have a broader scope than simply encouraging alternatives to animal testing, but aim to improve animal welfare and scientific quality where the use of animals can not be avoided.
These 3R's are now implemented in many testing establishments worldwide and have been adopted by various pieces of legislation and regulations. Despite the widespread acceptance of the 3R's, many countries—including Canada, Australia, Israel, South Korea, and Germany—have reported rising experimental use of animals in recent years with increased use of mice and, in some cases, fish while reporting declines in the use of cats, dogs, primates, rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters.
Along with other countries, China has also escalated its use of GM animals, resulting in an increase in overall animal use. Although many more invertebrates than vertebrates are used in animal testing, these studies are largely unregulated by law. The most frequently used invertebrate species are Drosophila melanogaster , a fruit fly, and Caenorhabditis elegans , a nematode worm.
In the case of C. However, the lack of an adaptive immune system and their simple organs prevent worms from being used in several aspects of medical research such as vaccine development. Several invertebrate systems are considered acceptable alternatives to vertebrates in early-stage discovery screens.
Drosophila melanogaster and the Galleria mellonella waxworm have been particularly important for analysis of virulence traits of mammalian pathogens. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate. Over 20, rabbits were used for animal testing in the UK in The numbers of rabbits used for this purpose has fallen substantially over the past two decades.
In , there were 3, procedures on rabbits for eye irritation in the UK,  and in this number was just Cats are most commonly used in neurological research. In the UK, just procedures were carried out on cats in The number has been around for most of the last decade. Dogs are widely used in biomedical research, testing, and education—particularly beagles , because they are gentle and easy to handle, and to allow for comparisons with historical data from beagles a Reduction technique.
They are used as models for human and veterinary diseases in cardiology, endocrinology , and bone and joint studies, research that tends to be highly invasive, according to the Humane Society of the United States.
Non-human primates NHPs are used in toxicology tests, studies of AIDS and hepatitis, studies of neurology , behavior and cognition, reproduction, genetics , and xenotransplantation. They are caught in the wild or purpose-bred. In the United States and China, most primates are domestically purpose-bred, whereas in Europe the majority are imported purpose-bred.
Department of Agriculture , there were 71, monkeys in U. As of , there are approximately chimpanzees in U. The first transgenic primate was produced in , with the development of a method that could introduce new genes into a rhesus macaque. Animals used by laboratories are largely supplied by specialist dealers. Sources differ for vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Most laboratories breed and raise flies and worms themselves, using strains and mutants supplied from a few main stock centers. Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly.
Department of Agriculture USDA to sell animals for research purposes, while Class B dealers are licensed to buy animals from "random sources" such as auctions, pound seizure, and newspaper ads. Some Class B dealers have been accused of kidnapping pets and illegally trapping strays, a practice known as bunching. Four states in the U. Fourteen states explicitly prohibit the practice, while the remainder either allow it or have no relevant legislation.
The latter requirement may also be exempted by special arrangement. Over half the primates imported between and were handled by Charles River Laboratories , or by Covance , which is the single largest importer of primates into the U. The extent to which animal testing causes pain and suffering , and the capacity of animals to experience and comprehend them, is the subject of much debate. Since , in the UK, every research procedure was retrospectively assessed for severity. The five categories are "sub-threshold", "mild", "moderate", "severe" and "non-recovery", the latter being procedures in which an animal is anesthetized and subsequently killed without recovering consciousness.
The idea that animals might not feel pain as human beings feel it traces back to the 17th-century French philosopher, René Descartes , who argued that animals do not experience pain and suffering because they lack consciousness. Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support,  some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined.
It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals. On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol".
Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues in receiving animal protocol approval. Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible, especially for terminal experiments. Methods of euthanizing laboratory animals are chosen to induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide , by being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia.
Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenously , or inhalant anesthetics may be used.
Amphibians and fish may be immersed in water containing an anesthetic such as tricaine. Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method. Recommended methods include decapitation beheading for small rodents or rabbits.
Cervical dislocation breaking the neck or spine may be used for birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits. Maceration grinding into small pieces is used on 1 day old chicks. Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits. It causes death by a concussion to the brain.
Gunshot may be used, but only in cases where a penetrating captive bolt may not be used. Some physical methods are only acceptable after the animal is unconscious.
Electrocution may be used for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, and mink after the animals are unconscious, often by a prior electrical stun. Pithing inserting a tool into the base of the brain is usable on animals already unconscious. Slow or rapid freezing, or inducing air embolism are acceptable only with prior anesthesia to induce unconsciousness. Basic or pure research investigates how organisms behave, develop, and function.
Those opposed to animal testing object that pure research may have little or no practical purpose, but researchers argue that it forms the necessary basis for the development of applied research, rendering the distinction between pure and applied research—research that has a specific practical aim—unclear.
Fruit flies, nematode worms, mice and rats together account for the vast majority, though small numbers of other species are used, ranging from sea slugs through to armadillos. Applied research aims to solve specific and practical problems. These may involve the use of animal models of diseases or conditions, which are often discovered or generated by pure research programmes.
In turn, such applied studies may be an early stage in the drug discovery process. Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants.
Documents released to the news media by the animal rights organization Uncaged Campaigns showed that, between and , wild baboons imported to the UK from Africa by Imutran Ltd, a subsidiary of Novartis Pharma AG, in conjunction with Cambridge University and Huntingdon Life Sciences , to be used in experiments that involved grafting pig tissues, suffered serious and sometimes fatal injuries. A scandal occurred when it was revealed that the company had communicated with the British government in an attempt to avoid regulation.
Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs, or by contract animal testing facilities, such as Huntingdon Life Sciences , on behalf of a wide variety of customers. Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides , medications , food additives , packing materials, and air freshener , or their chemical ingredients.
Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products, but according to BUAV , manufacturers believe these tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label.
The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously , intramuscularly , or subcutaneously ; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food.
Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. There are several different types of acute toxicity tests.
This test was removed from OECD international guidelines in , replaced by methods such as the fixed dose procedure , which use fewer animals and cause less suffering. Irritancy can be measured using the Draize test , where a test substance is applied to an animal's eyes or skin, usually an albino rabbit. For Draize eye testing, the test involves observing the effects of the substance at intervals and grading any damage or irritation, but the test should be halted and the animal killed if it shows "continuing signs of severe pain or distress".
The most stringent tests are reserved for drugs and foodstuffs. For these, a number of tests are performed, lasting less than a month acute , one to three months subchronic , and more than three months chronic to test general toxicity damage to organs , eye and skin irritancy, mutagenicity , carcinogenicity , teratogenicity , and reproductive problems.
The cost of the full complement of tests is several million dollars per substance and it may take three or four years to complete.
These toxicity tests provide, in the words of a United States National Academy of Sciences report, "critical information for assessing hazard and risk potential". Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe.
Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, which are still conducted in the U. Cosmetics testing on animals is banned in India, the European Union, Israel and Norway   while legislation in the U. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal , has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg , asking that the ban be quashed.
Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were lax. Currently, all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Tests on pharmaceutical products involve:.
It is estimated that 20 million animals are used annually for educational purposes in the United States including, classroom observational exercises, dissections and live-animal surgeries.
States and school districts mandating students be offered the choice to not dissect. The Sonoran Arthropod Institute hosts an annual Invertebrates in Education and Conservation Conference to discuss the use of invertebrates in education. In November , the U. The operator is required to amputate a cockroach's antennae , use sandpaper to wear down the shell, insert a wire into the thorax , and then glue the electrodes and circuit board onto the insect's back.
A mobile phone app can then be used to control it via Bluetooth. The makers of the "Roboroach" have been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and state that the device is intended to encourage children to become interested in neuroscience.
Animals are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing.