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Once laughed at by conservatives and pro-industrial energy advocates, the idea now gains ground as oil production continues to drop and gasoline prices soar. They carry a negative electrical charge, have much to do with the soil's chemistry, and serve as the primary sites for cation exchange and the capture and transport of nutrients. In most organisms, respiration releases the energy that drives metabolism. Supercells are likely candidates for producing tornados. Reheated pasta GI difference diet glycemic-index.

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Most are bacteria, algae, and fungi. They fuel the nitrogen and oxygen cycles that support all life on Earth. Its two fundamental norms, irreducible to any others: Deep ecologists see identification--with plants and animals, places, the world--as the basis of empathy and relationship. Fires on particular soils do this. This self-regulating dynamic helps prevent extinction.

Dependent Co-Arising Paticca Samuppada: Buddhist theory of mutual causality, which in practice means the interdependency of personal and social activity. Joanna Macy links this to a sense of environmental responsibility: Also, a transformation from gas to solid as a result of cooling. Because this requires a large amount of energy--normally provided by burning coal or oil--desalinization is normally used only in very dry areas.

Some desertification is natural, but most is from erosion, climate change global warming , or overgrazing. Below freezing, called a frost point. Similar to metamorphosis, but with less depth and less heat. Usually leads to dieoff extinction. The facts of nature cannot in the long run be violated. Penetrating and seeping through everything like water, they will undermine any system that fails to take account of them, and sooner or later they will bring about its downfall.

Can be natural or artificial. The opposite of Convergent Evolution. The molecules are made of linked nucleotides: These bases join like ladder rungs--always an A to a T and a C to a G--with the sugar-phosphate forming the outside "backbone" of the strand.

The sequence of these nucleotides, with each group of three spelling one anino acid "codon," determines the kind of protein manufactured when translated by strands of RNA.

James Watson and Francis Crick discovered this structure in Everything living carries the same gene code, one reason scientists are so confident we are all related biologically. Some DNA sequences are identical in humans and bacteria, a fact that underlines our common biological origins.

Coyotes are the next closest relatives. Used to prepare soil beds where plants have not been grown. Val Plumwood has named five features that characterize dualism: The meteorological equivalent of the Metrodome. Sometimes associated with mountain-building. Formed by particles of gas and denser materials once ejected from exploding supernovae and gradually pulled together by gravity. It spread spontaneously to thousands of campuses and involved at least 20 million participants.

Earth Day has become popular enough that politicians and corporate heads have started giving speeches on April President Bush tried it in , but the Great Smoky Mountains thundered and rained him out. Both contrast with the more human-focused perspective prevalent in industrialized nations.

The Laws postulate that living things seek to preserve their structure, grow toward climax maturity rather than entropy nonexistence , move into mutualism and wholeness, and survive and flourish through spontaneous, adaptive self-regulation.

Dissatisfied with ecological analyses that leave patriarchy out of account, ecofeminists out parallels between how men in the West mistreat women and how they mistreat the Earth: A twist on this is the patriarchal habit of objectifying women while feminizing the environment; women are then seen as less mature or human because "closer to nature. Salleh thinks that feminine bodily experiences situate women more closely to nature, whereas Roach critiques this for reinforcing of the old nature-culture dichotomy.

Many ecofeminists have criticized deep ecology's emphasis on unity seen as a deemphasis on diversity and particularity and on the need for elaborate philosophizing; for Plumwood, who sees the Western exaltation of rationality as a suicidal expression of ecological contempt, "identifying" with nature is an extended egotism that replaces relationship with psychological fusion.

For Ynestra King, the tie with nature, though socially colored, should be celebrated rather than repudiated as "determinist" or "essentialist. Shorter food chains tend to lose less energy. The term was coined in by German biologist and philosopher Ernest Haeckel, famous also for his discredited but interesting dictum that ontogeny individual physical development recapitulates phylogeny the evolutionary development of its species.

As with deep ecology, ecopsychology insists that to be healthy, our relations with the Earth must be reciprocal, not exploitive. At its core, ecopsychology suggests that there is a synergistic relation between planetary and personal well being; that the needs of the one are relevant to the other. From this norm follow certain values like: A key premise is that everything living has an intrinsic value apart from its purely human use value.

One of Naess's models, Spinoza, was a lens-grinder. Haikai Tane's term for a hypothesized evolution of ecosystems, some changing in response to human-caused planetary changes. The term was introduced in by Sir Arthur Tansley.

Social ecologist Murray Bookchin prefers the less mechanical word ecocommunity. Its components are not reducible to the interdependent relationships that emerge from it. Howard Odum's hypothesis that ecosystems change not only gradually, but in the unpredictable starts, fits, and "pulses" characteristic of systems subject to chaos dynamics.

Most greens consider ecotage inappropriate until, at the very least, actions like nonviolent resistance have proven futile. Dave Foreman of EarthFirst! Farmer-writer Gene Logsdon has wondered whether groups who resort to such acts ever think about protecting, say, vanishing topsoil. Ecotherapist Linda Buzzell-Saltzman refers to the field as "ecopsychology in action. Often associated with shield volcanoes. At present the Periodic Table contains elements.

Two or more elements form a compound. El Niño "the boy": As barometric pressure shifts over the Pacific and Indian Oceans the Southern Oscillation , floods strike some regions the West Coast of North America, for example as droughts bake others parts of South America.

South American fisherman bestowed the name because the effect--which lasts eight to ten months--often arrives near Christmas, birth time of the Christ Child. Emissivity and albedo help balance the global temperature. It is suspected to cause vaginal cancer, immune system deficiencies, and birth defects.

Examples of the resulting symbiosis include plastids, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. English evolved from the Anglo-Saxon tongues spoken by the Germanic tribes--Angli, Saxons, Frisians, Jutes--whose conscripts among the Roman legions had visited Britain later, Angleland, or England and found it inviting.

They came around , the year Rome fell to the Visigoths and the Emperor Honorius decided from the safety of Ravenna that outposts like Britain were on their own. With the Romans gone, the incoming Germanics blended with the indigenous Celts, and so did their languages: So matters stood until William the Conqueror invaded in and brought along a language spoken at court: Anglo-Norman, a dialect of French nobilityspeak thick with Latin words transplanted from the Roman Empire and its warlike clerics.

Eventually Anglo-Norman mixed with Old English to make Middle English the language of Chaucer , but during the Renaissance, renewed interest in classical science and scholarship summoned another wave of Latinisms.

With these and an infusion of Greek terms in place, English grew standardized with help from the printing press. Today only about one-sixth of it is homegrown, the rest imported from other languages.

Surrounded by the cogs and wheels of the Industrial Revolution, capitalists and scientists coined more new words from Greek and Latin formations that lent themselves to abstraction, classification, and measurement. Hence the need for glossaries like this one. For one more item, see Inkhorn.

It tends to increase over time. Both plants and animals have it. Tends to be the larger animals. See Opportunistic Success Strategy. The spring or vernal equinox is on March 21 or 22, and the autumn equinox on September 22 or Every time you see a dust cloud, or a muddy stream, a field scarred by erosion or a channel choked with silt, you are witnessing the passing of American democracy.

It divides two more or less even pieces of land. Conserves space, heat for frost-prone areas; enhances productivity.

Thick with nutrients and organic matter, such zones are the highest producers in the ecosphere. Eliminating one removes the grasses needed by local fish, shrimps, snails, and other protein-rich organisms, deprives the are of a pollutant scrubber, and removes a key flood-control device.

With strong-arm help from the Army Corps of Engineers, about half of the estuaries in the U. Requires a lot of energy. A natural event, but can cause plants to lose too much water in dry times. Of two groups of plants, roughly 50 individuals in each group is fairly even; 2 in one group and 50 in the other would be uneven. Needle-shaped leaves retain moisture with less loss to transpiration. Evolutionary operations and outcomes have been observed directly, today, as well as indirectly through field studies, DNA research, evidence-dating techniques, the fossil record, etc.

The animal equipped with a new and helpful feature is likelier to live long enough to pass it down than an animal without it. Eleph ants in China are more frequently born tuskless, now, due to pressure from poaching.

See Speciation for an example of a family of Asian butterflies branching into different species today. Genetic mutations, which are rare and usually harmful, play less of a role in evolution than Darwin believed, and cultural forces that reinforce selection for certain characteristics a larger role. See Natural Selection and Sexual Selection. According to biologist Richard Dawkins, the eye has evolved independently at least forty times, echo location four times, the venomous sting ten times, electrolocation several times, flapping flight four times, jet propulsion twice, and sound production for social puroses too many times to count.

See Convergent Evolution, Taxonomy. According to this chart, the highest form of life on Earth is the French poodle. The walls between "nature" and "culture" begin to crumble as we enter a posthuman era. Darwinian insights force occidental people, often unwillingly, to acknowledge their literal kinship with critters. Called unloading when it happens in conjunction with uplift.

Each exon codes for a specific part of the protein to be created. Not to be confused with Exxon, whose extra x symbolizes what it codes: Contrast with Effusive Eruption. Facilitation Model of Succession: Frequent in species that dwell in wetland uplands.

Industrially warehoused beef cattle weigh about 1, pounds after the steady diet of protein and steroids they are forced to eat. Felspars are found in almost all crystalline rocks. Fen peat usually comes from decomposing sedges, rushes, and other such plant matter. Baleen whales do this by forcing seawater past the baleen plates they use instead of teeth. Firn Limit Firn Line: First Law of Thermodynamics: Sunlight into tissue; motion into electricity.

Salt does this with clay particles. It can also be used to separate contaminants from wastewater. The detritus food chain starts when organic matter settles on the ground and breaks down. Because such linear food chains are relatively rare in nature, see Food Web. Foods that must come a long distance often require more preservatives and generate more air pollution from the petroleum products used to ship them.

For this reason food packaging does not usually say where something is grown. Buying from a local grower or farmer reduces or eliminates such environmentally unsound practices. Food web diagrams emphasize the circular complexity of feeding relationships. Cut down a forest and make a localized drought. Deforestation is a direct cause of spreading desertification worldwide.

Parallel damage to the human psyche remains largely unexplored. It was our Indian rule to keep our fields very sacred. We did not like to quarrel about our garden lands. One's title to a field once set up, no one ever thought of disputing it; for if one were selfish and quarrelsome, and tried to sieze land belonging to another, we thought some evil would come upon him There is a story of a black bear who got into a pit that was not his own, and he had his mind taken away from him for doing so.

Remains of their shells produces chalk. All told, these industries put tons of carbon dioxide into the air every second: Although none of these fuels carries much, if anything, left from the dinosaurs, these now-extinct saurons have come to symbolize them with an eerie persistence. Invented in Concord by Henry French. Yields were very high compared to traditional agricultural methods. See Density Dependence, Predator Switching. Types include cold fronts cold air pushing back warm air--often bringing stormy weather , warm fronts, stationary fronts, dry lines air barriers separating moist from dry air--very common in the American Midwest , and occluded fronts when a cold front catches up with a warm one; the resulting rotations of air can generate cyclones.

Many birds and bats are frugivores. Their long hyphae filaments aerate and bind soils, aid water transport, cycle nutrients, decompose organic matter, and allow roots to absorb nutrients from the ground. The hypothesis was invented to answer the question of how certain environmental variables gasses in the atmosphere, ocean salinity levels that should be unstable remain in equilibrium.

Think about a population of rats in which all but one have striped tails. A catastrophe kills all but the one, who goes on to breed. DNA duplication errors often create new genes. Gregor Mendel discovered genes and wrote about them--he called them "factors"--in , but his work was ignored for 45 years.

Their chromosomal order controls physical characteristics. Divided into eons, eras, periods, and epochs. We are now in the Phanerozoic Eon that started million years ago when animals began to fossilize in large numbers, the Cenozoic Era started 65 million years ago when the dinosaurs blew out , Quaternary Period roughly 2 million years ago, when pre-humans appeared , Holocene Epoch 10, years ago, when the last Ice Age ended.

Geysers and volcanos are naturally occuring examples. Many contain cirques on the valley floor. Peat is a frequent result. In Russia gleization has been used to grow an organic "liner" to hold water in leaky ponds and dugouts. The scientific emphasis has swung from whether global warming exists to how to minimize the damage it will cause.

One example of many: If the Greenland ice sheet melts, sea levels worldwide will rise twenty feet. The tide rises in Tuvalu, but unnaturally high tides are not seen only in the Pacific. They are being spotted now all over the world. An energy source for both plants and animals; it breaks down from ingested carbohydrates.

Cellulose and chitin contain it. Most Americans do not realize that eating processed food almost always means eating something genetically altered, in part because the foods are not normally labelled as such. Similar to rift valleys. Also a geology term for land leveling by deposition and erosion. Used as an alternative from growing a plant from seed. Grafting produces many hybrids.

Global warming is believed to have cut world grain production by 93 million tons in alone. Rich in quartz and potassium feldspar orthoclase. Jared Diamond's name for the human artifacts, ornaments, paintings, and other symbolic innovations that appeared rather suddenly 40, years ago. The "higher" plants evolved from it. It is usually applied before the second crop usually a food crop grows to avoid overheating it or depriving it of nutrients.

This natural effect is amplified by growing quantities of greenhouse gasses--carbon dioxide, nitroux oxide, chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , ozone, and methane--that trap reflected radiant energy as it tries to leave the planet. Some would see a tragic, bitter irony in using up topsoil, polluting the rivers and oceans, and blackening the atmosphere while unconsciously converting the entire world into a giant greenhouse. Ralph Metzner prefers the term "green psychology" because instead of sounding like yet another discipline or departmental specialty, it refers to what psychology should have been doing all along: In his book by the same name he notes, "The absence of any consideration given to the ecological basis of human life in textbooks and theories of psychology is startling: The resulting production techniques boosted wheat yield enormously, and their use in India and Pakistan saved millions of lives.

But because such production depends on irrigation which invites salt , heavy machinery which compacts soil , and chemical fertilizers and pesticides made from petroleum products, the long-term ecological consequences have been devastating. Gross domestic product GDP -- Gross domestic product is a measure of the total production and consumption of goods and services in the United States.

Because it does not take resource depletion or pollution into account, the GDP gives a false picture of the wealth of nations. This would lend evolution a forward-looking or "teleological" capacity most Darwinians reject. Gardeners work diatomaceous soil into the earth in spring to keep grubs from eating plant roots.

Planted around an orange tree: The guild is a version of companion planting. It separates warm surface air currents from cold downdrafts. Because emission slows as the isotope decreases in radioactivity, taking half the life of its decay is more meaningful than trying to estimate the entire amount. Half-lives range from millionths of a second to millions of years.

Most plants need less salty soil to grow in. By contrast, most of the cells that make up the body are diploid: Takes about two weeks. Caused by clay compation, iron precipitation, or cementing by calcium carbonate precipitates. Growing plants like dandelions can loosen it up. Mining and agricultural machinery, for example. Called a promontory when high and narrow. Healthy Planet Food Pyramid: Lawrence Buzzell-Saltzman's model of sustainable consumption of local food. Focusing on where we get our food, the pyramid rests on three levels: The average load of food must now travel 1, miles: Too much lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, arsenic, copper, or cadmium in soil can damage plants.

Cattails, rushes, and reeds are helophytes. Herbs are grown for seasonings, for medicinal use, and for attracting beneficial insects like bees into gardens. They do best in at least six hours of sunlight daily and are harvested as the first flower buds open.

It offers a more compact growing space and protects the plants inside it from weeds and wind. Insects are the most numerous herbivores. All fungi and animals are heterotrophs. A ten-dollar word for "self-correction. This is done to keep cream from rising to the top. Homogenized milk is suspected by some of contributing to several health problems, including hardening of the arteries and diminished resistance to cancer. We walk upright; so did early hominids.

Recent evidence suggests a genetic component. The opposite of a Graben Fault. Indigenous societies once believed on the brink of starvation until "civilized" by monoculturalists e. Using too much can burn plant roots. Most of the important micronutrients are cations; the most important anions are boron and molybdenum.

Agribusiness companies produce and sell hybrids that do not reproduce in order to retain a monopoly on seeds. Any statistical justification of ugliness or violence is a revelation of stupidity.

Wittfogel coined this term to apply only to Oriental despots, its practice is worldwide, as in the Los Angeles water wars of urban expansion and assimilation and Israel's diversion of the Jordan, a project that led to the Six Day War of The definition could be broadened to apply to enterprises like OPEC that monopolize vital resources.

It alters with changes in the water table. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, and methane are examples. Of the fresh water in rivers, streams, reservoirs, etc. Salt, glycerin, ethyl alcohol. In crabs, pepper spot disease occurs when the flatworms that infect the crab are infected by a parasitic protozoan.

An excess of nutrients eutrophication from fertilizer runoffs, air pollution, sewage, soil erosion, and other sources can spark enough algal growth to deprive the water of oxygen and kill off fish and other organisms that need it. Granite is an intrusive igneous rock. In urban areas the resulting storm runoffs spread pollution and waste, erode whatever soils they reach, and threaten communities with flash flooding. Moss sometimes means a lot of acid in the soil, for example, although to a seasoned eye, most plants can serve as indicators.

Sometimes used to mean a species that moves into an ecosystem from outside. Inhibition Model of Succession: Thomas Wilson's rant appeared in , his cry unheeded by generations of researchers who emulated a Latin-speaking priesthood by locking away their concepts in sacred verbal sacristies: Among all other lessons this should first be learned, that wee never affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but to speake as is commonly received: Some seeke so far for outlandish English, that they forget altogether their mothers language.

And I dare sweare this, if some of their mothers were alive, thei were not able to tell what they say: According to integral theory, every phenomenon can be studied either individually or collectively, and from the inside or the outside.

Integral ecology applies this by exploring the subjective, measurable, cultural, and developmental dimensions of a given ecological situation or problem rather than staying solely with one angle of attack. When done properly interplanting provides a natural mulch or ground cover and inhibits pest infestations.

A radioactive cloud drifting halfway around the world demonstrates an ecologically significant linkage between its point of origin and its destination; "everything is one" is verbal gas. As Charles Manson liked to put it, "If all is one, then nothing is wrong.

Ions play a key role in many biochemical reactions. For a segment of crust, buoyancy depends on its thickness and density.

U has the same number of protons, but not neutrons, as U, but U will not fission itself into an atomic chain reaction when lumped together. Such layers form the bottom of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Worldwide population growth, for instance.

The two polar jet streams are the strongest. They seem to play no role in anything genetic. Kaolinite Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide: Common in clays everywhere, including China, where its name comes from. Used to make paint, rubber, ceramic, plastics, and the glossy stuff they put on magazines. Left by a chunk of melted glacier. Under pressure it turns into a tarry hydrocarbon. Named after German chemist Hans Krebs, who discovered the cycle in See Glycolysis, Carbohydrate Catabolism.

K is the constant for carrying capacity in terms of population growth. This used to be true for whales before their environment was changed. Symptoms include bloating, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and nausea. People of Northern European descent tend to suffer it less because of an evolutionary transformation brought about by milk-drinking, a practice other humans have traditionally given up after infancy.

Laminar Flow Streamlined Flow: The air over land is of higher pressure because the land, heated during the day, is warmer than the water. La Niña "the girl": An intensification of normal conditions in North America, stormy in the northwest and dry in the southwest. The opposite of an El Niño. Triggers huge landslides in recently deforested areas. Laterites rich in aluminium oxides are mined for their aluminium ore.

An east-west line connecting places of the same latitude is a parallel. Latitude is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds. In other words, life gets richer toward the equator and less so nearer the poles. According to Bill Mollision see Permaculture , cultivated lawns go back to the British Empire and the country estate, both in the business of taming the natural world.

Their demand for water is second only to that of agricultural irrigation. Many require petroleum products to maintain and to fertilize, and pesticides to keep pristine despite their ecological vulnerability. Pesticides, fertilizers, poisons from mines or feedlots, and wastes from industrial plants sometimes leach into groundwater. Leaching also refers to washing the salt from soil to increase its fertility.

All legumes contribute to the nitrogen, phosphorus key to flowering and seed formation , and potassium nutrition of the crops that follow. Alfalfa is the heaviest nitrogen producer. Levees built to containn floods can actually accelerate floodwaters by narrowing natural channels. Used to make rattan. Ynestra King's term for politics grounded in care and relationships, in eros rather than logos only. The alga makes sugar through photosynthesis, and the fungi fills out the organism while holding it to a surface rocks, bark, etc.

Lichens pioneer harsh or sparse environments, provide food for grazers, and break down rocks through chemical weathering.

Hart Merriam in to classify environments by temperature and rainfall. There are eight major life zones: Limestone is often added to cement and other construction materials, including blocks and facings. Limnology is the study of lakes and ponds. With proteins and carbohydrates, membrane-strengthening lipids provide cells with their structure.

When earthquakes trigger it, walls, dams, buildings, and foundations are liable to collapse. Frequent near coastal developments and areas of poor drainage. Its erosion forms "cat steps" that slide off each other. A frequent component of fertile topsoil. A line connecting places of the same longitude is a meridian. It is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds. Unlike latitude, longitude cannot take the poles and equator as fixed points of reference.

It must rely more on time, which is why accurate long-voyage navigation had to await the invention of an accurate timepiece. Soils lacking one or more of them are sometimes given amendments to add what's needed. It might have evolved from scrapie , a similar disease that infects sheep and goats.

In Britain, the practice of feeding cattle with the remains of other cattle not known to have been infected helped spread the disease in the mids. Given how the meat packing industry treats them anyway, no wonder the cows are mad. Lava is exposed magma. The poles occasionally switch, also, which last happened , years ago. It shields the Earth from the highly charged plasma mostly hydrogen particles of the solar wind that emanates from the sun. Vandana Shiva's term for what usually goes by the name of development and in actuality results in widespread poverty and ecological destruction.

Maldevelopment contrasts with "realwealth," the actual richness and diversity of a community. Why does progress so often look like destruction? About 5, species in all, and all descended from a common ancestor of the anteater, platypus, marsupials like the kangaroo, and placentals.

The extinction of the dinosaurs Their trunks block wind, and their roots provide habitats and a barrier to erosion. Limestone marble is white. Marbles like those played with on street corners were once made of marble; the common method of shooting one is called fulking no kidding.

It's considered impolite to fulk with another person's marbles without permission. It tends to soften temperature extremes. Used as a fertilizer or a source of lime for lime-poor soils. The mass extinction now underway threatens more than half the animals on Earth, some of whom have already vanished; others, like the great apes, are about to. For a tribute to what no longer lives, see the Altars of Extinction project online. Tends to occur at higher elevations. Contributes to soil cohesion and the formation of helpful colloids.

Its larvae also eat vegetables and nuts. Yellow-brown with reddish purple eyes. Chemical sprays do not control them effectively because of the brief time it takes the adult to lay eggs below the surface of the offspring's future food source. Braconid wasps and other parasites seem to do a more thorough job see Biocontrol.

Lewis Mumford's term for a mechanical sequestering of human energy into rigid social hierarchies. His examples include the labor force that built the Pyramids and the armies of both World Wars. The macrofauna like fish depend on them for food.

Because each must contain half a future offspring's DNA one set from the father and one from the mother , the kind of cell division mitosis used elsewhere will not work--it would double the amount of DNA needed. To prevent this, meiosis turns a cell containing 46 chromosomes into four sex cells containing 23 chromosomes each haploids through an initial extra stage that mixes chromosomes.

Aside from that stage, meiosis is like Mitosis. Recent research supports Susan Blackmore's theory that the human brain evolved rapidly to make itself a better habitat for human memes. Such memes would be available for sexual selection. Different sorts of meristem make the various tissues some for bark, some for leaves, etc. Merophytes build much of a plant, the leaves and stems in particular.

About half of mesocyclones spawn tornados. All the physical and chemical factors in the production anabolism and breakdown catabolism of protoplasm and energy. Metabolism is the fire of biological life. Called prograde metamorphism when the change agents are intensifying, and retrograde when they are decreasing.

A frequent occurrence below the Earth's surface. Metamorphic rocks make up most of the planet's crust. Although local groups might die out, the migrants keep the species alive. Term coined by Richard Levins, Can be used to offset too much heat, light, or cold in the surrounding area. Which implies that the two are as separate as self and world were thought to be another Cartesian gem.

A more profound philosopher spoke to this centuries before Descartes and his coordinate-plane approach: When you wrack your brain trying to unify things without knowing that they are already one, it is called "three in the morning. So he said, "How about four in the morning and three in the evening? Over 2, varieties have been discovered. In archeology, the replacement of fossil bone with water-borne minerals. The implied dualism is older than Descartes. Mitochondria also regulate bodily heat and refine the oxygen that would otherwise poison us.

They look like upturned pillbugs. Some tiny marine protozoans are mixotrophs. Chemistry is the scientific study of molecular reactions. The measurements are more physically precise than the Richter Scale it replaced. See Polyclimax Theory for a less capitalistic perspective. Caused by sedimentary rocks bending over a fault line. This generally requires large quantities of artificial fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, nematocides, and other potentiall toxic measures to kill bugs and increase yield.

Even with these chemical aids, monocultures are prone to disease outbreaks and pest infestations. Wes Jackson New Roots for Agriculture: Monoculture invites pests, diseases, erosion.

Common near the Indian Ocean. Wetter than a heath but drier than a bog. Often acidic, cold, and rich in carbon content. They prefer dark, moist locations.

The tunnel reaches downward until it spreads over the underlying bedrock. In the case of Greenland and Antartica, moulins are lubricating the remaining sheets of ice from below, making it easier for them to snap off and melt in the sea.

Even compost is basically treated mulch. Mulching a garden reduces erosion, conserves soil moisture, inhibits weed growth, and provides the soil with organic matter. Can be symbiotic or nonsymbiotic. Similar to a virus. The fungus is nourished and housed by the roots it transports soil nutrients into. Almost nothing green would grow without this symbiosis.

Masanobu Fukuoka's method for letting roots till the soil instead of machines. Decrease cultivation and you decrease weeds. Leguminous cover crops and mulching instead of fertilizer.

Fukuoka practices what he calls the "no-plowing, no-fertilizing, no-weeding, no-pesticides, do-nothing method of natural farming. His rice yields have been impressive. He reads like kind of a nut: The bat that hears better than the rest stands a better chance of living long enough to pass on that kind of hearing. In this way certain favorable genes--favorable to adapting to environment pressures--gradually become more numerous in a given population.

Discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in rather, discovered years earlier by both; Darwin beat Wallace to the press in Whether the environment shapes completely passive life-material or interacts with an emerging and ever-more-conscious creative potentiality is a most interesting current debate.

Because the sun and moon stand at right angles to each other, their tidal pulls partially nullify each other, resulting in a lesser tide. Contrast with Spring Tide. Can be parasitic as with the trichina and the hookworm or free-living. Neurons were thought to work somewhat like electric switches: These chemicals then trigger a pulse or inhibit one in other neurons. As it turns out, however, each neuron is more like a microchip than a simple switch.

How much of the brain a person uses at once, or regularly, is another matter. The adult brain contains about 10 billion neurons, with the brain as a whole drawing watts of power, and with an ultimate storage capacity of very roughly terrabytes: It's hard to estimate because each dendrite contacts about 10, other neurons in extraordinarily complicated neural nets.

Some venoms are neurotoxins that paralyze the prey. To take a leaf from George Carlin's book, this is one of those ideas like walking up to someone, declaring, "I have nothing to say to you," and walking away.

Neutrons and protons make up most of the atom's mass. Falls occur at nickpoints. Artificially manufactured nitrates are used in fertilizers and explosives. Nitrogen Cycle or Nitrification: Bacteria, legumes, and algae convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates that enter plant roots before turning into protoplasm that decomposers eventually break down again.

Examples include lead, mercury, arsenic, plastics, and synthetics. The resulting heat drives electric generators. Although the average nuclear plant creates tons of highly toxic byproducts and wastes a year, no one has thought up a safe way to deal with it plutonium has a half-life of 24, years. The tilt makes seasons possible because at any given position in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, half of the planet will lean toward the sun as the other half leans away from it. Often composed of rhyolite.

Franciscan priest William of Occam's admonition against unnecessary plurality in explanations of something not understood. In other words, simple explanations requiring fewer assumptions crop circles are cut by pranksters on tractors tend to work better than those requiring more assumptions crop circles are cut by extraterrestrials who come here by an unknown means to make designs through an unknown method for unknown reasons before departing again without leaving any other evidence of their visit.

Chalquist Trimming of Occam's Razor: Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain: The plates are about 75 kilometers thick. Volcanism at the mid-ocean ridges produced them million years ago. Its dark, spellbinding, "oildorado" properties include convincing large groups of people to vote against cheap public transportation and elevating pirates and robber barons into heads of nation-states.

Logging old growth forests triggers ecological consequences, some known loss of water, rainfall, habitat, oxygen, carbon, etc. Paul Shepard's term for the emotional and spiritual stunting that results from growing up in a civilization at war with nature and afraid of close contact with anything wild.

An example would be socializing hordes of people to be impulsive consumers, thereby strengthening their least mature tendencies while curtailing their capacity for critical thought. The fact that millions of people share the same vices does not make these vices virtues, the fact that they share so many errors does not make the errors to be truths, and the fact that millions of people share the same forms of mental pathology does not make these people sane.

The basic aim is to grow things naturally with a minimum of mechanical interference. Organic farming grew in popularity from Sir Albert Howard's published observations of Indian farming techniques Fairview Gardens, an organic farm and blossoming outpost of urban agriculture flourishing in Goleta, California. Originally developed by the Nazis during the s for use as bioweapons--"weapons of mass production," as President Bush would say. Currently the most popular class of pesticides.

Chemicals from poisons and explosives, tractors from caterpillar-treaded tanks: They rise as continental plates smash together case in point: Often results in rain on the windward side and a dry rain shadow on the lee side. Some fish do this to help them move among waters that vary in salinity. Ancient outgassing produced most of the Earth's atmosphere.

The second billion arrived in a mere century, the third in 44 years, and the fourth in 12 years. See Crash and Dieback. The ovary becomes the fruit. The protective ozone layer hangs 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. It irritates the eyes. There seem to have been at least two other supercontinents before Pangaea.

Used to study how patches of invasive species impact an ecosystem, among other things. Not to be confused with the actings out of Patch Adams, a famous and dynamic doctor arrested for protesting naked in San Francisco. From the air they resemble beads on a cord.

Certain viruses, bacteria, and authoritarian flag-waving fanatics are common examples of pathogens. They tend to be parasites that weaken the organisms they feed upon until self-protective systems get rid of them. Fifty common chlorine compounds that grow stronger as they move up the food chain.

Odorless and tasteless, they came from electronics manufacturing until laws were passed to forbid their production and release. They are still plentiful in the air, soil, and water, however. Symptoms vary from depression, rashes, and acne to gastrointestinal and liver damage. Once laughed at by conservatives and pro-industrial energy advocates, the idea now gains ground as oil production continues to drop and gasoline prices soar.

The driving force is usually a bitter blend of perfectionistic fussiness and nerdy narcissism. The sight of psychologists, ecologists, and academics engaged in heated struggles about the definition of an ecological concept while the ecosphere burns is a lamentable one. Often seen in dry regions. Perennials tend to take longer to produce a food yield than the quick-growing annuals so heavily exploited by traditional agriculture, but they last longer and do better in marginal soils.

Usually refers to landforms shaped by glaciation. Perihelion occurs on the 3rd or 4th of January. The opposite of Aphelion. Some of the heavier elements only exist in laboratories. According to Holmgren, permaculture is the use of systems principles and design thinking to make landscapes that mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature while yielding abundant food, fibre, and energy for human needs. Emphasis is on multi-use plants, cultural practices like sheet mulching and trellising, and encouraging animals to recycle nutrients and graze weeds.

Community planning includes energy-efficient buildings, waste water treatment, and growing healthy soils as well as plants.

Shale is porous and therefore permeable, as is sand and gravel; granite and clay are not. Too many pests mean not enough predators, like fish or birds for mosquitos and gopher snakes for gophers, who also avoid daffodils, elderberry cuttings, and castor beans.

Teas made of chamomile, stinging nettle, comfrey, or horsetail discourage harmful fungi. Marigolds control whiteflies, spearmint, tansy, and pennyroyal control ants, Mexican marigold controls nematodes and root pests, as do French marigolds; yellow nasturtiums decoy black aphids, which are repelled by spearmint, stinging nettle, southernwood, and garlic, and borage repels tomato worms while attracting helpful bees.

Substances with a pH below 7. Acids tend to be sour and corrosives, and bases alkaline compounds the opposite, and slippery. Rainy climates tend to produce acidic soil, dry climates alkaline soil.

For growing food, soil pH should fall between 6. Lime is sometimes added to acidic soil and sulfur to alkaline soil. The more humus in the soil to buffer it, the less pH impacts fertility. Always requires an exchange of energy, whether an increase or decrease. Phenotypes are the aspect visible to natural selection: The phenotype extends to the organism's environment: Automobile and industrial exhausts are major contributors.

Beams of light are composed of photons. Plants do it with a light-sensitive organelle called the chloroplast. Photosynthesis gave us not only food, but the atmosphere we breathe. Upon their photosynthetic selves hang the food webs of the oceans. Many annuals are pioneer species. Many tend to be invasive. Carpels ovule-bearing leaves compose it, and stamens, petals and sepals ring it.

A flower without stamens is a pistillate. Our cultural preferrence for space to place survived even the Einsteinian destruction of categories like absolute time and space: Casey points out, for example, the word morality goes back to a term for "custom," whereas the word ethics refers ultimately to the place where the horses went home at night. Ed Casey's term for the felt, lived reconnection of space and place. An example is how the self experiences itself as firmly located somewhere specific rather than feeling lost in a sea of plots or coordinates.

In the mids, placer mining by pick and pan gave way to powerful hydraulic hoses that washed away entire hillsides. Larger organisms graze them like grass. As far back as , Alfred Wegener noted that the continents fit together like puzzle pieces into some lost whole see Pangaea, a name he coined. He was ignored, but in , Arthur Holmes decided that thermal convection currents in the mantle could move continents around.

These ideas also account for where the seafloor comes from molten material emitted through cracks between plates , how some of it disappears when the edge of one plate vanishes under another-- subduction , and why volcanic and mountain-building activity so often surfaces in belts plate edges.

Also, a dry desert lake bed. Mutations often do this. To use the example of Richard Dawkins, genes function not as blueprints, but as recipes. Late in the 7th century, northern peasants began using a new type of plow, equipped with a vertical knife to cut a furrow, a horizontal blade to slice under the surface, and a moldboard to turn it over: Rotating crosses called windmills pumped water from the sinking Netherlands, an effort first funded by the church.

Named after Pluto, god of the underworld, whose name also means "wealth. Tends to build outwards. Also, an animal without horns e. Contrast with Monoclimax Theory. Some are used in pesticides. Aside from causing cancer, their impact on humans is unknown, although test animals exposed to them lost the ability to reproduce.

Not all polymers are organic, although most are. Human hair and skin color are polymorphous. Often used for toxicity testing of a nearby body of water. Sometimes obtained from wood ashes. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered.

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