Cambridge study finds 'starvation mode' DOES exist


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I was reading more about rabbits in traditional cultures and I remember reading the Native Indians used to dig deep holes and keep rabbits in them the first domestic rabbits, maybe? It's not clear what calorie intake level brings on starvation mode and whether the effects are increased the lower the calorie intake. Do you have any help for someone that tries to do this, but notices that raw dairy seems to cause weight gain? As CSF agents swarmed into Omas' home, Omas threw himself on Skywalker's activated lightsaber, fatally wounding himself. After Ben's birth, the Skywalkers were notified by Borsk Fey'lya that they would be allowed to return to Coruscant, and the arrest warrant had been lifted. After the meeting with his mother, Skywalker stayed with Lon Shevu rather than face his father. He ordered caf and one of his favorite delicacies, kruffy pot pie , but upon attempting to pay with his credcard he was notified that the special banking account set up for his mission did not work.

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Just ask MP Tom Watson! The only records obtained are of violence between Portuguese and Africans during the Battle of Mbilwa in In these documents the Portuguese wrote of African raids on Portuguese merchants solely for food, giving clear signs of famine.

Additionally, instances of cannibalism by the African Jaga were also more prevalent during this time frame, indicating an extreme deprivation of a primary food source. A notable period of famine occurred around the turn of the 20th century in the Congo Free State. In forming this state, Leopold used mass labor camps to finance his empire. The introduction of cash crops such as cotton , and forcible measures to impel farmers to grow these crops, sometimes impoverished the peasantry in many areas, such as northern Nigeria, contributing to greater vulnerability to famine when severe drought struck in A large-scale famine occurred in Ethiopia in and succeeding years, as the rinderpest epizootic , introduced into Eritrea by infected cattle, spread southwards reaching ultimately as far as South Africa.

In Ethiopia it was estimated that as much as 90 percent of the national herd died, rendering rich farmers and herders destitute overnight. This coincided with drought associated with an el Nino oscillation, human epidemics of smallpox , and in several countries, intense war. The Ethiopian Great famine that afflicted Ethiopia from to cost it roughly one-third of its population. Records compiled for the Himba recall two droughts from to They were recorded by the Himba through a method of oral tradition.

From to the Himba described the drought as "drought of the omutati seed" also called omangowi , which means the fruit of an unidentified vine that people ate during the time period.

From to droughts brought katur' ombanda or kari' ombanda which means "the time of eating clothing". For the middle part of the 20th century, agriculturalists, economists and geographers did not consider Africa to be especially famine prone.

From to , 87 per cent of deaths from famine occurred in Asia and Eastern Europe, with only 9. Although the drought was brief the main cause of death in Rwanda was due to Belgian prerogatives to acquisition grain from their colony Rwanda.

The increased grain acquisition was related to WW2. This and the drought caused , Rwandans to perish. From to large scale famine occurred in Biafra and Nigeria due to a government blockade of the Breakaway territory. It is estimated that 1. Additionally, drought and other government interference with the food supply caused thousand Africans to perish in Central and West Africa.

Famine recurred in the early s, when Ethiopia and the west African Sahel suffered drought and famine. The Ethiopian famine of that time was closely linked to the crisis of feudalism in that country, and in due course helped to bring about the downfall of the Emperor Haile Selassie. The Sahelian famine was associated with the slowly growing crisis of pastoralism in Africa, which has seen livestock herding decline as a viable way of life over the last two generations.

Famines occurred in Sudan in the lates and again in and The famine in Karamoja , Uganda was, in terms of mortality rates, one of the worst in history. This caused famine because even though the Sudanese Government believed there was a surplus of grain, there were local deficits across the region.

In October , television reports describing the Ethiopian famine as "biblical", prompted the Live Aid concerts in London and Philadelphia , which raised large sums to alleviate the suffering. A primary cause of the famine one of the largest seen in the country is that Ethiopia and the surrounding Horn was still recovering from the droughts which occurred in the mid-late s.

Compounding this problem was the intermittent fighting due to civil war , the government 's lack of organization in providing relief, and hoarding of supplies to control the population. Ultimately, over 1 million Ethiopians died and over 22 million people suffered due to the prolonged drought, which lasted roughly 2 years. In Somalia became a war zone with no effective government, police, or basic services after the collapse of the dictatorship led by Siad Barre and the split of power between warlords.

This coincided with a massive drought, causing over , Somalis to perish. Since the start of the 21st century, more effective early warning and humanitarian response actions have reduced the number of deaths by famine markedly. That said, many African countries are not self-sufficient in food production, relying on income from cash crops to import food. Agriculture in Africa is susceptible to climatic fluctuations, especially droughts which can reduce the amount of food produced locally.

Other agricultural problems include soil infertility , land degradation and erosion , swarms of desert locusts , which can destroy whole crops, and livestock diseases. Desertification is increasingly problematic: The —85 famine in Ethiopia, for example, was the outcome of all these three factors, made worse by the Communist government's censorship of the emerging crisis. In Sudan at the same date, drought and economic crisis combined with denials of any food shortage by the then-government of President Gaafar Nimeiry , to create a crisis that killed perhaps , people—and helped bring about a popular uprising that overthrew Nimeiry.

Numerous factors make the food security situation in Africa tenuous, including political instability, armed conflict and civil war , corruption and mismanagement in handling food supplies, and trade policies that harm African agriculture.

An example of a famine created by human rights abuses is the Sudan famine. AIDS is also having long-term economic effects on agriculture by reducing the available workforce, and is creating new vulnerabilities to famine by overburdening poor households. On the other hand, in the modern history of Africa on quite a few occasions famines acted as a major source of acute political instability. Recent famines in Africa include the —06 Niger food crisis , the Sahel famine and the East Africa drought , where two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa in 60 years.

Today, famine is most widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa , but with exhaustion of food resources, overdrafting of groundwater , wars, internal struggles, and economic failure, famine continues to be a worldwide problem with hundreds of millions of people suffering. The famine in Ethiopia in the s had an immense death toll, although Asian famines of the 20th century have also produced extensive death tolls.

Modern African famines are characterized by widespread destitution and malnutrition, with heightened mortality confined to young children. Against a backdrop of conventional interventions through the state or markets, alternative initiatives have been pioneered to address the problem of food security. One pan-African example is the Great Green Wall. CABDA proceeds through specific areas of intervention such as the introduction of drought-resistant crops and new methods of food production such as agro-forestry.

This enables farmers to influence and drive their own development through community-run institutions, bringing food security to their household and region. The organization of African unity and its role in the African crisis has been interested in the political aspects of the continent, especially the liberation of the occupied parts of it and the elimination of racism.

The organization has succeeded in this area but the economic field and development has not succeeded in these fields. African leaders have agreed to waive the role of their organization in the development to the United Nations through the Economic Commission for Africa "ECA". The four famines of , , , and are said to have killed no fewer than 45 million people.

Japan experienced more than famines between and The period from to saw, as a result of the Taiping Rebellion , drought, and famine, the population of China drop by over 30 million people. These events are comparable, though somewhat smaller in scale, to the ecological trigger events of China's vast 19th-century famines.

When a stressed monarchy shifted from state management and direct shipments of grain to monetary charity in the midth century, the system broke down. Thus the —68 famine under the Tongzhi Restoration was successfully relieved but the Great North China Famine of —78, caused by drought across northern China, was a catastrophe.

The province of Shanxi was substantially depopulated as grains ran out, and desperately starving people stripped forests, fields, and their very houses for food. Estimated mortality is 9. The largest famine of the 20th century , and almost certainly of all time, was the —61 Great Leap Forward famine in China.

The immediate causes of this famine lay in Mao Zedong's ill-fated attempt to transform China from an agricultural nation to an industrial power in one huge leap. Communist Party cadres across China insisted that peasants abandon their farms for collective farms, and begin to produce steel in small foundries, often melting down their farm instruments in the process.

Collectivisation undermined incentives for the investment of labor and resources in agriculture; unrealistic plans for decentralized metal production sapped needed labor; unfavorable weather conditions; and communal dining halls encouraged overconsumption of available food.

When the leadership did become aware of the scale of the famine, it did little to respond, and continued to ban any discussion of the cataclysm. This blanket suppression of news was so effective that very few Chinese citizens were aware of the scale of the famine, and the greatest peacetime demographic disaster of the 20th century only became widely known twenty years later, when the veil of censorship began to lift.

The exact number of famine deaths during —61 is difficult to determine, and estimates range from 18 [57] to at least 42 million [58] people, with a further 30 million cancelled or delayed births. China has not experienced a famine of the proportions of the Great Leap Forward since In , the Khmer Rouge took control of Cambodia.

The new government was led by Pol Pot , who desired to turn Cambodia into a communist, agrarian utopia. His regime emptied the cities, abolished currency and private property, and forced Cambodia's population into slavery on communal farms. In less than four years, the Khmer Rouge had executed nearly 1. Due to the failure of the Khmer Rouge's agrarian reform policies, Cambodia experienced widespread famine.

As many as one million more died from starvation, disease, and exhaustion resulting from these policies. By that time about one quarter of Cambodia's population had been killed. Famine struck North Korea in the mids , set off by unprecedented floods. This autarkic urban , industrial state depended on massive inputs of subsidised goods, including fossil fuels, primarily from the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.

When the Soviet collapse and China's marketization switched trade to a hard currency, full-price basis, North Korea's economy collapsed. The vulnerable agricultural sector experienced a massive failure in —96, expanding to full-fledged famine by — Estimates based on the North Korean census suggest that , to , people died as a result of the famine and that there were , to , unnatural deaths in North Korea from to While Woo-Cumings have focused on the FAD side of the famine, Moon argues that FAD shifted the incentive structure of the authoritarian regime to react in a way that forced millions of disenfranchised people to starve to death Moon, Various famines have occurred in Vietnam.

Owing to its almost entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is vulnerable to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen into famine. For example, during the — Great famines in India entire provinces were depopulated. Famine in Deccan killed at least two million people in — Bhatia believes that the earlier famines were localised, and it was only after , during the British rule , that famine came to signify general shortage of foodgrains in the country.

There were approximately 25 major famines spread through states such as Tamil Nadu in the south, and Bihar and Bengal in the east during the latter half of the 19th century. Romesh Chunder Dutt argued as early as , and present-day scholars such as Amartya Sen agree, that some historic famines were a product of both uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies, which since had led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, heavy taxation of Indian citizens to support British expeditions in Afghanistan see The Second Anglo-Afghan War , inflationary measures that increased the price of food, and substantial exports of staple crops from India to Britain.

Dutt, and ; Srivastava, ; Sen, ; Bhatia, Some British citizens, such as William Digby , agitated for policy reforms and famine relief, but Lord Lytton , the governing British viceroy in India, opposed such changes in the belief that they would stimulate shirking by Indian workers. The first, the Bengal famine of , is estimated to have taken around 10 million lives—one-third of Bengal's population at the time. Other notable famines include the Great Famine of —78 , in which 6.

The observations of the Famine Commission of support the notion that food distribution is more to blame for famines than food scarcity. They observed that each province in British India, including Burma , had a surplus of foodgrains, and the annual surplus was 5. At that time, annual export of rice and other grains from India was approximately one million tons.

The Maharashtra drought in which there were zero deaths and one which is known for the successful employment of famine prevention policies, unlike during British rule. The Great Persian famine of — is believed to have caused the death of 1. In the early 20th century an Ottoman blockade of food being exported to Lebanon caused a famine which killed up to , Lebanese about one-third of the population.

The famine killed more people than the Lebanese Civil War. The blockade was caused by uprisings in the Syrian region of the Empire including one which occurred in the s which lead to the massacre of thousands of Lebanese and Syrian by Ottoman Turks and local Druze. The Great Famine of — or to was the first major food crisis to strike Europe in the 14th century. Millions in northern Europe died over an extended number of years, marking a clear end to the earlier period of growth and prosperity during the 11th and 12th centuries.

Most nobles, cities, and states were slow to respond to the crisis and when they realized its severity, they had little success in securing food for their people. It had consequences for Church, State, European society and future calamities to follow in the 14th century. There were 95 famines in medieval Britain , [78] and 75 or more in medieval France. Famine was a very destabilizing and devastating occurrence.

The prospect of starvation led people to take desperate measures. When scarcity of food became apparent to peasants, they would sacrifice long-term prosperity for short-term survival.

They would kill their draught animals , leading to lowered production in subsequent years. They would eat their seed corn, sacrificing next year's crop in the hope that more seed could be found.

Once those means had been exhausted, they would take to the road in search of food. They migrated to the cities where merchants from other areas would be more likely to sell their food, as cities had a stronger purchasing power than did rural areas.

Cities also administered relief programs and bought grain for their populations so that they could keep order. With the confusion and desperation of the migrants, crime would often follow them. Many peasants resorted to banditry in order to acquire enough to eat. One famine would often lead to difficulties in the following years because of lack of seed stock or disruption of routine, or perhaps because of less-available labour. Famines were often interpreted as signs of God 's displeasure.

They were seen as the removal, by God, of His gifts to the people of the Earth. Elaborate religious processions and rituals were made to prevent God's wrath in the form of famine. During the 15th century to the 18th century, famines in Europe became more frequent due to the Little Ice Age. The colder climate resulted in harvest failures and shortfalls that led to a rise in conspiracy theories concerning the causes behind these famines, such as the Pacte de Famine in France.

The s saw the worst famines in centuries across all of Europe. Famine had been relatively rare during the 16th century. The economy and population had grown steadily as subsistence populations tend to when there is an extended period of relative peace most of the time.

Although peasants in areas of high population density, such as northern Italy, had learned to increase the yields of their lands through techniques such as promiscuous culture, they were still quite vulnerable to famines, forcing them to work their land even more intensively.

The great famine of the s began a period of famine and decline in the 17th century. The price of grain, all over Europe was high, as was the population. Various types of people were vulnerable to the succession of bad harvests that occurred throughout the s in different regions. The increasing number of wage labourers in the countryside were vulnerable because they had no food of their own, and their meager living was not enough to purchase the expensive grain of a bad-crop year.

Town labourers were also at risk because their wages would be insufficient to cover the cost of grain, and, to make matters worse, they often received less money in bad-crop years since the disposable income of the wealthy was spent on grain.

Often, unemployment would be the result of the increase in grain prices, leading to ever-increasing numbers of urban poor. All areas of Europe were badly affected by the famine in these periods, especially rural areas.

The Netherlands was able to escape most of the damaging effects of the famine, though the s were still difficult years there. Amsterdam 's grain trade with the Baltic , guaranteed a food supply. The years around saw another period of famine sweep across Europe. These famines were generally less severe than the famines of twenty-five years earlier, but they were nonetheless quite serious in many areas.

Perhaps the worst famine since , the great famine in Finland in , killed one-third of the population. Devastating harvest failures afflicted the northern Italian economy from to , and it did not recover fully for centuries.

There were serious famines in the lates and less severe ones in the s throughout northern Italy. Over two million people died in two famines in France between and Both famines were made worse by ongoing wars. The Great Famine of — may have killed a third of the Finnish population. The period of —43 saw frigid winters and summer droughts, which led to famine across Europe and a major spike in mortality.

According to Scott and Duncan , "Eastern Europe experienced more than recorded famines between AD and and there were hunger years and famine years in Russia between AD and The Great Famine , which lasted from until , killed about one tenth of Czech lands ' population, or , inhabitants, and radicalised countrysides leading to peasant uprisings. There were sixteen good harvests and famine years in northern Italy from to Dyson and Robert J.

Rowland, "The Jesuits of Cagliari [in Sardinia] recorded years during the late s "of such hunger and so sterile that the majority of the people could sustain life only with wild ferns and other weeds" During the terrible famine of , some 80, persons, out of a total population of ,, are said to have died, and entire villages were devastated According to Bryson , there were thirty-seven famine years in Iceland between and The lava caused little direct damage, but ash and sulphur dioxide spewed out over most of the country, causing three-quarters of the island's livestock to perish.

In the following famine, around ten thousand people died, one-fifth of the population of Iceland. Other areas of Europe have known famines much more recently. France saw famines as recently as the 19th century. The Great Famine in Ireland , —, caused by the failure of the potato crop over a few years, resulted in 1,, dead and another 2,, refugees fleeing to Britain, Australia and the United States.

Famine still occurred in Eastern Europe during the 20th century. Droughts and famines in Imperial Russia are known to have happened every 10 to 13 years, with average droughts happening every 5 to 7 years.

Russia experienced eleven major famines between and , one of the worst being the famine of — Famines continued in the Soviet era, the most notorious being the Holodomor in various parts of the country, especially the Volga , and the Ukrainian and northern Kazakh SSR's during the winter of — The Soviet famine of — is nowadays reckoned to have cost an estimated 6 million lives. The Hunger Plan , i. There were an additional estimated 3 million famine deaths in areas of the USSR not under German occupation.

The days of the Siege of Leningrad — caused unparalleled famine in the Leningrad region through disruption of utilities, water, energy and food supplies. This resulted in the deaths of about one million people. In the Netherlands , the Hongerwinter of killed approximately 30, people. Some other areas of Europe also experienced famine at the same time. The pre-Columbian Americans often dealt with severe food shortages and famines.

Brazil 's —78 Grande Seca Great Drought , the worst in Brazil's history, [] caused approximately half a million deaths. Easter Island was hit by a great famine between the 15th and 18th centuries. Hunger and subsequent cannibalism was caused by overpopulation and depletion of natural resources as a result of deforestation, partly because work on megalithic monuments required a lot of wood.

There are other documented episodes of famine in various islands of Polynesia, such as occurred in Kau, Hawaii in According to Daniel Lord Smail, "'Famine cannibalism ' was until recently a regular feature of life in the islands of the Massim near New Guinea and of some other societies of Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Beginning in the 20th century, nitrogen fertilizers , new pesticides , desert farming , and other agricultural technologies began to be used to increase food production, in part to combat famine.

Developed nations have shared these technologies with developing nations with a famine problem. However, as early as , there were signs that these new developments may contribute to the decline of arable land e. According to geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer , coming decades could see rising food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level. Other countries affected include Pakistan , Iran , and Mexico. This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest.

Even while overexploiting its aquifers , China has developed a grain deficit, contributing to the upward pressure on grain prices. Most of the three billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. Four of these already import a large share of their grain. Only Pakistan remains marginally self-sufficient.

But with a population expanding by 4 million a year, it will also soon turn to the world market for grain. Evan Fraser, a geographer at the University of Guelph in Ontario , Canada, explores the ways in which climate change may affect future famines. Drawing on situations as diverse as the Great Irish Potato Famine , [] a series of weather induced famines in Asia during the late 19th century, and famines in Ethiopia during the s, he concludes there are three "lines of defense" that protect a community's food security from environmental change.

The first line of defense is the agro-ecosystem on which food is produced: The second line of defense is the wealth and skills of individual households: If those households affected by bad weather such as drought have savings or skills they may be able to do all right despite the bad weather.

The final line of defense is created by the formal institutions present in a society. Governments, churches, or NGOs must be willing and able to mount effective relief efforts. Pulling this together, Evan Fraser argues that if an ecosystem is resilient enough, it may be able to withstand weather-related shocks.

But if these shocks overwhelm the ecosystem's line of defense, it is necessary for the household to adapt using its skills and savings. If a problem is too big for the family or household, then people must rely on the third line of defense, which is whether or not the formal institutions present in a society are able to provide help.

Evan Fraser concludes that in almost every situation where an environmental problem triggered a famine you see a failure in each of these three lines of defense. Definitions of famines are based on three different categories—these include food supply-based, food consumption-based and mortality-based definitions.

Some definitions of famines are:. Food shortages in a population are caused either by a lack of food or by difficulties in food distribution; it may be worsened by natural climate fluctuations and by extreme political conditions related to oppressive government or warfare.

The conventional explanation until for the cause of famines was the Food availability decline FAD hypothesis. The assumption was that the central cause of all famines was a decline in food availability. According to this view, famines are a result of entitlements, the theory being proposed is called the "failure of exchange entitlements" or FEE. The exchange can happen via trading or production or through a combination of the two.

These entitlements are called trade-based or production-based entitlements. Per this proposed view, famines are precipitated due to a breakdown in the ability of the person to exchange his entitlements. According to the Physicians for Social Responsibility PSR , global climate change is additionally challenging the Earth's ability to produce food, potentially leading to famine.

Some elements make a particular region more vulnerable to famine. These include poverty, population growth , [] an inappropriate social infrastructure, a suppressive political regime, and a weak or under-prepared government. Many famines are caused by imbalance of food production compared to the large populations of countries whose population exceeds the regional carrying capacity.

Changing weather patterns, the ineffectiveness of medieval governments in dealing with crises, wars, and epidemic diseases such as the Black Death helped to cause hundreds of famines in Europe during the Middle Ages , including 95 in Britain and 75 in France.

The failure of a harvest or change in conditions, such as drought , can create a situation whereby large numbers of people continue to live where the carrying capacity of the land has temporarily dropped radically. Famine is often associated with subsistence agriculture. The total absence of agriculture in an economically strong area does not cause famine; Arizona and other wealthy regions import the vast majority of their food, since such regions produce sufficient economic goods for trade.

Famines have also been caused by volcanism. The eruption of the Mount Tambora volcano in Indonesia caused crop failures and famines worldwide and caused the worst famine of the 19th century. The current consensus of the scientific community is that the aerosols and dust released into the upper atmosphere causes cooler temperatures by preventing the sun's energy from reaching the ground.

The same mechanism is theorized to be caused by very large meteorite impacts to the extent of causing mass extinctions. In certain cases, such as the Great Leap Forward in China which produced the largest famine in absolute numbers , North Korea in the mids , or Zimbabwe in the earlys, famine can occur because of government policy. It was termed the Holodomor , suggesting that it was a deliberate campaign of repression designed to eliminate resistance to collectivization.

Forced grain quotas imposed upon the rural peasants and a brutal reign of terror contributed to the widespread famine.

The Soviet government continued to deny the problem and it did not provide aid to the victims nor did it accept foreign aid. Barely enough grain was left for the peasants, and starvation occurred in many rural areas. Exportation of grain continued despite the famine and the government attempted to conceal it. While the famine is attributed to unintended consequences, it is believed that the government refused to acknowledge the problem, thereby further contributing to the deaths.

In many instances, peasants were persecuted. Between 20 and 45 million people perished in this famine, making it one of the deadliest famines to date. Malawi ended its famine by subsidizing farmers despite the strictures imposed by the World Bank. In the lates and earlys, residents of the dictatorships of Ethiopia and Sudan suffered massive famines, but the democracy of Botswana avoided them, despite also suffering a severe drop in national food production.

In Somalia , famine occurred because of a failed state. The famine in Yemen was a direct result of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen and blockade imposed by Saudi Arabia and its allies, including the United States. Hasell and Roser have demonstrated that while there have been a few minor exceptions, famines rarely occur in democratic system but are strongly correlated with autocratic and colonial systems. Relief technologies, including immunization , improved public health infrastructure, general food rations and supplementary feeding for vulnerable children, has provided temporary mitigation to the mortality impact of famines, while leaving their economic consequences unchanged, and not solving the underlying issue of too large a regional population relative to food production capability.

Humanitarian crises may also arise from genocide campaigns, civil wars , refugee flows and episodes of extreme violence and state collapse, creating famine conditions among the affected populations.

Despite repeated stated intentions by the world's leaders to end hunger and famine, famine remains a chronic threat in much of Africa, Eastern Europe, the Southeast, South Asia, and the Middle East. In January , the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization warned that 11 million people in Somalia, Kenya , Djibouti and Ethiopia were in danger of starvation due to the combination of severe drought and military conflicts.

Frances Moore Lappé , later co-founder of the Institute for Food and Development Policy Food First argued in Diet for a Small Planet that vegetarian diets can provide food for larger populations, with the same resources, compared to omnivorous diets.

Noting that modern famines are sometimes aggravated by misguided economic policies, political design to impoverish or marginalize certain populations, or acts of war, political economists have investigated the political conditions under which famine is prevented.

Economist Amartya Sen [note 2] states that the liberal institutions that exist in India, including competitive elections and a free press, have played a major role in preventing famine in that country since independence. Alex de Waal has developed this theory to focus on the "political contract" between rulers and people that ensures famine prevention, noting the rarity of such political contracts in Africa, and the danger that international relief agencies will undermine such contracts through removing the locus of accountability for famines from national governments.

The demographic impacts of famine are sharp. Mortality is concentrated among children and the elderly. A consistent demographic fact is that in all recorded famines, male mortality exceeds female, even in those populations such as northern India and Pakistan where there is a male longevity advantage during normal times. Reasons for this may include greater female resilience under the pressure of malnutrition, and possibly female's naturally higher percentage of body fat.

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